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Francesco Silvestro, Nicola Rebora, and Luca Ferraris

. Following this approach, the fact that a rainfall scenario causes the exceedance of a certain k T in a particular basin is representative also of the other neighbor basins with similar hydrological response. 3. Territorial context The Italian region of Liguria is a narrow strip of land about 250 km long and 20–30 km wide with a surface area of about 5421 km 2 . It has very few flat areas and is covered mainly by forest. Most of the catchments have their outlet in the Mediterranean Sea and, because of

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Mathew A. Barlow and Michael K. Tippett

via extratropical Rossby wave activity; that is, the tropospheric winds at all levels have anomalies similar in direction to those aloft, and the jet level winds, therefore, are in this case an indicator of changes in moisture flux. The climatological vertically integrated moisture flux is shown in Fig. 7a . The climatological moisture flux is from the west, and several water bodies supply moisture to central Asia, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea. The

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Rana Samuels, Alon Rimmer, Andreas Hartmann, Simon Krichak, and Pinhas Alpert

results should be seen as a first approximation used to test the ability of the approach and its sensitivity to changes in climate parameters in the vulnerable areas of the eastern Mediterranean (EM) and the Middle East. The approach should be improved and validated based on results from additional climate models. However, for now, the methodology can provide important information for water policy and planning. This study specifically focuses on the important meteorological variables for precipitation

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Seyed-Mohammad Hosseini-Moghari and Qiuhong Tang

categorical validation metrics, respectively. From Fig. 6 , in early and late runs, KGE values are almost negative in the south of Iran, which are probably affected by large RBias in this area. Generally, KGE values are significantly improved in the final runs. The lowest CCs and highest negative RBias can be seen in the south of the Caspian Sea, suggesting that the IPPs neither estimate rainfall dynamic well nor its amount resulted in RMSE more than 10 mm in this region. In early and late runs for V06

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Eleanor J. Burke and Simon J. Brown

, convection, radiation, boundary layer, dynamics, land surface, and sea ice and are detailed by Collins et al. (2006) . The parameter that has most relevance here is whether the plants stomata respond to increased CO 2 or not; if they respond there is a decrease in evapotranspiration and increase in temperature with increasing CO 2 ( Betts et al. 2007 ). The perturbations were selected to result in a range of climate sensitivities (the difference in global mean temperature between 1×CO 2 and 2×CO 2

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F. J. Tapiador, A. Berne, T. Raupach, A. Navarro, G. Lee, and Z. S. Haddad

. Instrumental setup Data from two networks of first-generation OTT Parsivel ( Löffler-Mang and Joss 2000 ) disdrometers were used in this work. The first [the Hydrological Cycle in Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) dataset] was deployed in Ardèche, France, in the autumns of 2012 and 2013, as part of HyMeX ( Ducrocq et al. 2014 ; Drobinski et al. 2014 ; Nord et al. 2017 ). There were seven (nine) instruments deployed in 2012 (2013) over a region of about 8 × 13 km 2 . This study region is subject to high

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Martina Lagasio, Francesco Silvestro, Lorenzo Campo, and Antonio Parodi

1. Introduction The Mediterranean region is frequently struck by severe floods and flash floods causing a significant death toll and several millions of euros of damage. The western Mediterranean area is characterized by a complex orography (Alps, Apennines, Massif Central, Pyrenees), often sitting close to the coastline, that is potentially able to enhance or even to trigger the deep convective processes originating over the warm sea in the fall season ( Rebora et al. 2013 ; Ducrocq et al

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Phil P. Harris, Sonja S. Folwell, Belen Gallego-Elvira, José Rodríguez, Sean Milton, and Christopher M. Taylor

initial conditions . J. Climate , 19 , 3659 – 3680 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI3810.1 . 10.1175/JCLI3810.1 Feudale , L. , and J. Shukla , 2007 : Role of Mediterranean SST in enhancing the European heat wave of summer 2003 . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 34 , L03811 , doi: 10.1029/2006GL027991 . 10.1029/2006GL027991 Feudale , L. , and J. Shukla , 2011 : Influence of sea surface temperature on the European heat wave of 2003 summer. Part II: A modeling study . Climate Dyn. , 36 , 1705 – 1715 , doi: 10

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N. Hasler, R. Avissar, and G. E. Liston

parameterization of convective precipitation. Whether higher resolution would improve the representation of the regional climate system remains to be assessed. Since circulations induced by land surface features, often associated with convection, occur preferentially at 10–20-km length scales ( Baidya Roy et al. 2003b ), finer resolution may be particularly important in studies of land-cover change impacts on climate. Convection is an important atmospheric process characteristic of the western Mediterranean

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

associated with relatively shallow cloud features in Spain near the Mediterranean Sea. Smaller inland lakes such as the Finger Lakes region in upstate New York also produce appreciable lake-effect snow ( Laird et al. 2010 ). Lake-effect snow, however, is not the only form of shallow snowfall. Shallow Arctic clouds, with forcing mechanisms that differ from lake-effect snow, also commonly produce snowfall. Snow-generating Arctic mixed-phase clouds are also an important supercooled cloud liquid water sink

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