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Rana Samuels, Alon Rimmer, Andreas Hartmann, Simon Krichak, and Pinhas Alpert

results should be seen as a first approximation used to test the ability of the approach and its sensitivity to changes in climate parameters in the vulnerable areas of the eastern Mediterranean (EM) and the Middle East. The approach should be improved and validated based on results from additional climate models. However, for now, the methodology can provide important information for water policy and planning. This study specifically focuses on the important meteorological variables for precipitation

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Seyed-Mohammad Hosseini-Moghari and Qiuhong Tang

categorical validation metrics, respectively. From Fig. 6 , in early and late runs, KGE values are almost negative in the south of Iran, which are probably affected by large RBias in this area. Generally, KGE values are significantly improved in the final runs. The lowest CCs and highest negative RBias can be seen in the south of the Caspian Sea, suggesting that the IPPs neither estimate rainfall dynamic well nor its amount resulted in RMSE more than 10 mm in this region. In early and late runs for V06

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F. J. Tapiador, A. Berne, T. Raupach, A. Navarro, G. Lee, and Z. S. Haddad

. Instrumental setup Data from two networks of first-generation OTT Parsivel ( Löffler-Mang and Joss 2000 ) disdrometers were used in this work. The first [the Hydrological Cycle in Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) dataset] was deployed in Ardèche, France, in the autumns of 2012 and 2013, as part of HyMeX ( Ducrocq et al. 2014 ; Drobinski et al. 2014 ; Nord et al. 2017 ). There were seven (nine) instruments deployed in 2012 (2013) over a region of about 8 × 13 km 2 . This study region is subject to high

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Eleanor J. Burke and Simon J. Brown

, convection, radiation, boundary layer, dynamics, land surface, and sea ice and are detailed by Collins et al. (2006) . The parameter that has most relevance here is whether the plants stomata respond to increased CO 2 or not; if they respond there is a decrease in evapotranspiration and increase in temperature with increasing CO 2 ( Betts et al. 2007 ). The perturbations were selected to result in a range of climate sensitivities (the difference in global mean temperature between 1×CO 2 and 2×CO 2

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Martina Lagasio, Francesco Silvestro, Lorenzo Campo, and Antonio Parodi

1. Introduction The Mediterranean region is frequently struck by severe floods and flash floods causing a significant death toll and several millions of euros of damage. The western Mediterranean area is characterized by a complex orography (Alps, Apennines, Massif Central, Pyrenees), often sitting close to the coastline, that is potentially able to enhance or even to trigger the deep convective processes originating over the warm sea in the fall season ( Rebora et al. 2013 ; Ducrocq et al

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Phil P. Harris, Sonja S. Folwell, Belen Gallego-Elvira, José Rodríguez, Sean Milton, and Christopher M. Taylor

initial conditions . J. Climate , 19 , 3659 – 3680 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI3810.1 . 10.1175/JCLI3810.1 Feudale , L. , and J. Shukla , 2007 : Role of Mediterranean SST in enhancing the European heat wave of summer 2003 . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 34 , L03811 , doi: 10.1029/2006GL027991 . 10.1029/2006GL027991 Feudale , L. , and J. Shukla , 2011 : Influence of sea surface temperature on the European heat wave of 2003 summer. Part II: A modeling study . Climate Dyn. , 36 , 1705 – 1715 , doi: 10

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N. Hasler, R. Avissar, and G. E. Liston

parameterization of convective precipitation. Whether higher resolution would improve the representation of the regional climate system remains to be assessed. Since circulations induced by land surface features, often associated with convection, occur preferentially at 10–20-km length scales ( Baidya Roy et al. 2003b ), finer resolution may be particularly important in studies of land-cover change impacts on climate. Convection is an important atmospheric process characteristic of the western Mediterranean

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

associated with relatively shallow cloud features in Spain near the Mediterranean Sea. Smaller inland lakes such as the Finger Lakes region in upstate New York also produce appreciable lake-effect snow ( Laird et al. 2010 ). Lake-effect snow, however, is not the only form of shallow snowfall. Shallow Arctic clouds, with forcing mechanisms that differ from lake-effect snow, also commonly produce snowfall. Snow-generating Arctic mixed-phase clouds are also an important supercooled cloud liquid water sink

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Aristeidis G. Koutroulis, Aggeliki-Eleni K. Vrohidou, and Ioannis K. Tsanis

. Study area and data description The island of Crete is located in the southeastern part of the Mediterranean region ( Fig. 4 ) and is well known to be one of the most drought-prone areas of Greece. Political interests and disputes among the four prefectures and the more than 100 municipalities of the island, as well as poor water management, have created a public belief that water resources are inadequate and that some kind of drought is imminent ( Manios and Tsanis 2006 ). The island has a surface

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J. Teng, F. H. S. Chiew, J. Vaze, S. Marvanek, and D. G. C. Kirono

the significant water reform that is currently happening in Australia. For the purpose of this paper, the large areas of southeast Australia and northern Australia are each divided into two regions. The Budyko and Fu runoff estimates are therefore compared with hydrological modeling results from six regions ( Fig. 1 ): summer-dominated runoff area of southeast Australia (SEA_SUM), winter-dominated runoff area of southeast Australia (SEA_WIN), Tasmania (TAS), eastern part of northern Australia (NA

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