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Y. Fouquart, B. Bonnel, G. Brogniez, J. C. Buriez, L. Smith, J. J. Morcrette, and A. Cerf

of the large ~emperature discontinuity at thesurface, important infrared heatin~ at the surface layer was observed. The rather large differences between the aerosol optical properties reported here and those previously reportedin the literature are due to different aerosol size distributions; therefore the present paper stresses the importanceof careful determination of the size distributions.1. Introduction In addition to their potential effect on the globalradiative budget of the earth

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Maria João Costa, Vincenzo Levizzani, and Ana Maria Silva

in the present study. Besides the aerosol models obtained with the present method, three climatological aerosol models from the literature ( Dubovik et al. 2002 ) were also examined for their aerosol characterization: 1) desert type for Cape Verde, 2) desert type for Bahrain, and 3) biomass burning type (African savannah). Results and validation Aerosol properties retrieved from GOME A spatial and temporal analysis of the GOME-derived aerosol optical properties (see Part I for details) results

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Julien Delanoë, A. Protat, D. Bouniol, Andrew Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, and Philip Brown

can access an extensive documentation of the ice cloud properties, including ice water content, effective radius, visible extinction (and cloud optical depth), and number concentration. The method proposed in this paper, denoted as radar only (RadOn) herein, consists in estimating these quantities from two radar measurements (radar reflectivity and Doppler velocity). This method is described in the next section. 3. Principle of the method The different steps of the method (summarized on the

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William S. Olson, Peter Bauer, Christian D. Kummerow, Ye Hong, and Wei-Kuo Tao

Introduction In Part I ( Olson et al. 2001 , this issue), a physical model that describes the melting of ice-phase precipitation within the stratiform regions of “parent” 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations was presented. Alternative methods for calculating the dielectric and radiative properties of melting precipitation were compared, and the optical depths and reflectivities of the simulated melting layers were compared with observations. Here, the parent 3D CRM fields that have been

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Bryan A. Baum, Bruce A. Wielicki, Patrick Minnis, and Lindsay Parker

visible reflectance andan infrared (IR) emittance of less than one. Theseproperties of cirrus complicate their analysis and detection. Satellite cloud-retrieval algorithms attempt toinfer such cloud properties as cloud fractional coverage,cloud-top height, cloud visible optical depth, and cloudinfrared emittance. The large number of existing cloudretrieval algorithms, each typically inferring only oneor two of the cloud properties, demonstrates the difficulty of assessing cloud physical properties. In

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Sunggi Chung, Steven Ackerman, Paul F. van Delst, and W. Paul Menzel

ice-particle size and ice-water paths of cirrus so that the effect of these clouds on the earth radiation budget will be understood more fully. As a first step, an algorithm for retrieving cirrus properties has been developed based on the discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) method to build a reliable means of characterizing cirrus cloud from remote sensing. At this initial stage, the particles are treated as spheres and the scattering function is approximated by the Henyey

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Cintia Carbajal Henken, Maurice J. Schmeits, Hartwig Deneke, and Rob A. Roebeling

, convective cloud development has been observed for quasi-stationary convection ( Roberts and Rutledge 2003 ). Furthermore, cloud-tracking algorithms have been used to track and monitor temporal trends of individual convective cloud systems (e.g., Bolliger et al. 2003 ; Mecikalski and Bedka 2006 ; Zinner et al. 2008 ). Multispectral techniques can be used to derive cloud physical properties for upper parts of the clouds. Cloud physical properties may include cloud-top temperature (CTT), cloud optical

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William S. Olson, Peter Bauer, Nicolas F. Viltard, Daniel E. Johnson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Robert Meneghini, and Liang Liao

considered. The dielectric and radiative properties of melting ice hydrometeors are calculated using different methods, and the results are intercompared. Extinction optical depth and reflectivity simulations are compared with the corresponding PR-derived quantities in an attempt to determine which modeling assumptions lead to simulations most consistent with the observations. Previous work (e.g., Fabry and Szyrmer 1999 ; Liao and Meneghini 2000 ) has focused on the consistency between modeled and

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Takeshi Watanabe and Daisuke Nohara

removed. This data processing is convenient for analyzing surface solar irradiance data at different sites in different seasons simultaneously. b. MODIS cloud properties We use the level-2 cloud product of MODIS on Terra and Aqua ( Platnick et al. 2015a , b ) in product datasets MOD06 and MYD06, respectively. The datasets cover the same period as the surface solar irradiance. These products contain some physical parameters related to the cloud properties. We use cloud optical thickness (COT

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Gerald G. Mace and Alain Protat

liquid when the thermodynamics allowed, did contain ice-phase precipitation significantly more often than implied by spaceborne lidar, as discussed in Part I . We suggest that interpretation of spaceborne lidar statistics should be tempered by the knowledge that lidar is unable to characterize cloud properties below the first three optical depths in a cloud layer. In this work, we expand on Part I by examining in more detail the properties of geometrically thin nonprecipitating and often

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