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Nathalie Voisin, Alan F. Hamlet, L. Phil Graham, David W. Pierce, Tim P. Barnett, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

summer is much more dependent on potential savings associated with meeting extreme peak demands at shorter time scales than in meeting average demands on monthly time scales. b. Natural gas planning applications ENSO and PDO forecasts probably have their clearest energy-related applications for forecasting natural gas markets in CA, because in warm ENSO and/or warm PDO years there is typically little surplus electric power available from the PNW and CA would have to rely largely on conventional

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Hui Shao, John Derber, Xiang-Yu Huang, Ming Hu, Kathryn Newman, Donald Stark, Michael Lueken, Chunhua Zhou, Louisa Nance, Ying-Hwa Kuo, and Barbara Brown

to extend its 4D data assimilation capability through inclusion of the hybrid 4D–EnVar approach ( Kleist and Ide 2012 ) with plans to apply this technique to the upcoming GFS implementation scheduled for 2016 ( Tallapragada 2015 ). As for other operational models and systems, a sustained development effort is granted to GSI within the research teams that support operational applications (therefore mostly considered to be “internal” teams to operational centers). High priority is given to

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Raul P. Lejano, Joyce Melcar Tan, and A. Meriwether W. Wilson

. 2014 ). And, most critically, disaster risk prevention planning and policy needs to better incorporate lessons learned from decades of risk communication research. In addition, Fig. 3 illustrates the necessary functions of feedback loops (shown in the figure as dashed lines), through which recipient agencies can query, discuss, and exchange knowledge with the sending agency or agencies—what some researchers have referred to as dialogic interaction ( Moser 2010 ). Through these feedback mechanisms

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Worth D. Nowlin Jr.
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J. P. Bruce
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Sharanya J. Majumdar, Edmund K. M. Chang, Malaquías Peña, Renee Tatusko, and Zoltan Toth

international 5–10-year THORPEX legacy projects under WWRP. The first two projects, Polar Prediction Project (PPP) and Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction (S2S), have been formally established with their own International Coordination Office and Implementation Plan. The third, High-Impact Weather (HIWeather), has recently been established and the governance is being finalized at the time of writing. To engage the U.S. research and operational communities in these new legacy projects and begin to articulate a

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This appendix is the executive summary of the 2004 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan: Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program (DOE/ER-ARM-0402; available online at https://www.arm.gov/publications/programdocs/doe-er-arm-0402.pdf ) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. The text has been edited to conform to the style of the American Meteorological Society, but the content is

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Planned and Inadvertent Weather Modification

A Policy Statement of the American Meteorological Society as adopted by the Council on September 27, 1984

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