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Colin Plank and Bryan Shuman

surface–general circulation models (GCMs) that account for surface water cover predict lower sensible heat fluxes, higher latent heat fluxes, and decreased average annual air temperatures than GCMs that do not incorporate surface water. Summer air temperatures in model experiments with surface water effects are 1.7°–3.0°C cooler than in those without surface water ( Delire et al. 2002 ; Bonan 1995 ). Other recent work has focused on the quantification of local and regional effects of small lakes via

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Melanie Raimonet, Ludovic Oudin, Vincent Thieu, Marie Silvestre, Robert Vautard, Christophe Rabouille, and Patrick Le Moigne

practices. Classical observation data processing (checking and completing missing precipitation and temperature values, estimates of spatial averages of these variables, etc.) is now less frequently performed by hydrologists for regional and global applications, given that these processes are included in the methodology to derive gridded meteorological datasets. Gridded meteorological datasets are, however, integrated systems, and it is difficult to fully understand the impact and sensitivity to

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A. Rinke, C. Melsheimer, K. Dethloff, and G. Heygster

, available from Arctic regional climate model (RCM) simulations. The aim of the paper is to use the new satellite-derived data for four recent years to evaluate Arctic RCM simulations of TWV for the first time. At the same time, ECMWF analysis data and earlier satellite-derived data are included in this intercomparison. The objectives are, on the one hand, to emphasize the usefulness of the new satellite dataset for model evaluation purposes and, on the other hand, to highlight the reasonable simulation

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Olga Zolina, Ambroise Dufour, Sergey K. Gulev, and Georgiy Stenchikov

1. Introduction The Red Sea is a unique basin characterized by extremely high evaporation, which amounts to 1.6–1.9 m yr −1 for the whole sea ( Tragou et al. 1999 ) and may increase to more than 3 m yr −1 in the northern part (e.g., Papadopoulos et al. 2013 ). Upon rising into the atmosphere, this moisture participates in the regional hydrological cycle, influencing water content and precipitation over the adjacent continents. Over the Arabian Peninsula, precipitation, while very rare, has

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Adam A. Scaife, Chris K. Folland, Lisa V. Alexander, Anders Moberg, and Jeff R. Knight

). These studies found observational evidence of increases in the frequency of various kinds of extreme precipitation and decreases in the frequency of low temperature events over the last few decades. However, in common with most studies, little attempt was made to separate out regional and seasonally varying atmospheric circulation influences, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) (or the closely related Northern Annual Mode), from effects due to global warming. The influence of the NAO on

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Paola A. Arias, Juan Camilo Villegas, Jenny Machado, Angélica M. Serna, Lina M. Vidal, Catherine Vieira, Carlos A. Cadavid, Sara C. Vieira, Jorge E. Ángel, and Óscar A. Mejía

element, constituted by a complete assessment of the current risk management policies at local and subregional levels. Such assessment would provide insights on how current policies include vulnerability reduction strategies, suggesting how a social network for environmental monitoring could be inserted into such policies. Conversely, an adequate comprehension of local and regional policies by communities and institution members would promote a more effective inclusion of these risk management

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Bingcheng Wan, Zhiqiu Gao, Fei Chen, and Chungu Lu

1. Introduction The Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest plateau on Earth, plays an important role in global and regional climate, especially enhancing the East Asian summer monsoon that brought abundant precipitation to China, Korea, and Japan ( Zhisheng et al. 2001 ; Liu and Yin 2002 ; Jiang et al. 2008 ). The TP acts as the primary heating source before the rainy season ( Yanai et al. 1992 ; Ye and Wu 1998 ) and greatly influences the onset of East Asian summer monsoon and the precipitation

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W. Paul Miller and Thomas C. Piechota

need to understand the impacts and effects of climate change and climate variability within the basin. The release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report ( Alley et al. 2007 ) has brought the issue of climate change and climate trends to the forefront of scientific and political communities. Trends in climate variability, particularly those associated with precipitation, temperature, and streamflow, have become particularly important in the western United

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David E. Parker

1. Introduction Regional and local temperature series such as central England temperature (CET) ( Manley 1974 ; Parker et al. 1992 ; Parker and Horton 2005 ) and De Bilt, Netherlands, temperature ( Brandsma et al. 2003 ) depend on atmospheric circulation, sea surface temperature, and natural and anthropogenic forcings external to the climate system as well as on local influences ( Osborn et al. 1999 ; Osborn and Jones 2000 , 2003 ; Sexton et al. 2003 ; van Oldenborgh and van Ulden 2003

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Christopher J. Goodman and Jennifer D. Small Griswold

month. For this project, data from the ASPM Data Download module and the ASPM Weather Factors Frequency Report Module from October 2003 to July 2015 were used and required a FOIA request to obtain. Fig . 1. Locations of the 77 ASPM airports. Airports in red are highlighted in this work for considering regional impacts of specific weather types and events. The ASPM Weather Factors Frequency Report gives pertinent information on the occurrence and impacts of certain weather types/conditions (i.e., low

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