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Martin Weil, Hartmut Grassl, Gholamali Hoshyaripour, Silvia Kloster, Jasmin Kominek, Stergios Misios, Juergen Scheffran, Steven Starr, Georgiy Stenchikov, Natalia Sudarchikova, Claudia Timmreck, Dan Zhang, and Martin Kalinowski

, and their environmental effects on a regional and global scale. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES. The second session focused on environmental consequences, considering both direct climate impacts, which include changes in temperature, precipitation, ozone depletion, etc., and secondary environmental impacts, which are relevant for the biosphere, for example, conditions for agriculture and intensity of ultraviolet radiation. The impact of historic volcanic eruptions on the climate is still debated. In

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Stijn Hantson, Silvia Kloster, Michael Coughlan, Anne-Laure Daniau, Boris Vannière, Tim Brücher, Natalie Kehrwald, and Brian I. Magi

such as western North America and Indonesia in 2015 have made the issue of fire increasingly salient in both the public and scientific spheres. Biomass combustion rapidly transforms land cover, smoke pours into the atmosphere, radiative heat from fires initiates dramatic pyrocumulus clouds, and the repeated ecological and atmospheric effects of fire can even impact regional and global climate. Furthermore, fires have a significant impact on human health, livelihoods, and social and economic systems

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Andreas Muhlbauer, Wojciech W. Grabowski, Szymon P. Malinowski, Thomas P. Ackerman, George H. Bryan, Zachary J. Lebo, Jason A. Milbrandt, Hugh Morrison, Mikhail Ovchinnikov, Sarah Tessendorf, Julie M. Thériault, and Greg Thompson

ice properties, ice initiation, and crystal growth in cloud microphysical parameterizations have led to improved simulations of the properties of mixed-phase and cold clouds, but uncertainties remain, especially with respect to the prediction of ice number concentrations and the effects of aerosol particles on ice formation. Regional climate models are approaching the cloud-permitting and cloud-resolving scale; this will open the way for new regional climate change applications and links to

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Xuhui Lee, Zhiqiu Gao, Chaolin Zhang, Fei Chen, Yinqiao Hu, Weimei Jiang, Shuhua Liu, Longhua Lu, Jielun Sun, Jiemin Wang, Zhihua Zeng, Qiang Zhang, Ming Zhao, and Mingyu Zhou

, the number and size of urban clusters will continue to grow. The symposium participants advocate investment in urban ABL studies, at levels that should rival those for priority area 2. Urban heat islands in urban amalgams are much stronger than in isolated cities. The clustering of cities may also generate measureable effects on regional weather. Intensive field campaigns, similar to the Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) and the Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA

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Xu Dao, Yu-Chi Lin, Fang Cao, Shi-Ying Di, Yihang Hong, Guanhua Xing, Jianjun Li, Pingqing Fu, and Yan-Lin Zhang

NCP region. These studies were regularly conducted at individual cities (often one or two such as Beijing and Tianjin). However, haze is a regional-scale air pollution and regional transport can play an important role in forming regional haze pollution in the NCP. Limited to previous results without long-term and comprehensive observation-based network, the regional effects and evolutions of chemical characteristics in aerosols during haze events are not well understood. Therefore, the source

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Bin Wang, Michela Biasutti, Michael P. Byrne, Christopher Castro, Chih-Pei Chang, Kerry Cook, Rong Fu, Alice M. Grimm, Kyung-Ja Ha, Harry Hendon, Akio Kitoh, R. Krishnan, June-Yi Lee, Jianping Li, Jian Liu, Aurel Moise, Salvatore Pascale, M. K. Roxy, Anji Seth, Chung-Hsiung Sui, Andrew Turner, Song Yang, Kyung-Sook Yun, Lixia Zhang, and Tianjun Zhou

. , 39 , L18702 , . 10.1029/2012GL052945 Chang , C.-P. , M. Ghil , H. C. Kuo , M. Latif , C. H. Sui , and J. M. Wallace , 2014 : Understanding multidecadal climate changes . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 95 , 293 – 296 , . 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00015.1 Chen , X. , and T. Zhou , 2015 : Distinct effects of global mean warming and regional sea surface warming pattern on projected uncertainty in the

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Cindy E. Morris, Samuel Soubeyrand, E. Keith Bigg, Jessie M. Creamean, and David C. Sands

that variations in cloud-active particles, their emission, aging, interaction with other aerosols, and their response to weather conditions could compound these feedbacks by inducing additional variability across geographic sites and over time. These traits of aerosols could also be influenced by regional meteorological conditions (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and dynamics). Disentangling the macrophysical meteorological factors from the aerosol microphysical effects on precipitation

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Nilton O. Rennó, Earle Williams, Daniel Rosenfeld, David G. Fischer, Jürgen Fischer, Tibor Kremic, Arun Agrawal, Meinrat O. Andreae, Rosina Bierbaum, Richard Blakeslee, Anko Boerner, Neil Bowles, Hugh Christian, Ann Cox, Jason Dunion, Akos Horvath, Xianglei Huang, Alexander Khain, Stefan Kinne, Maria C. Lemos, Joyce E. Penner, Ulrich Pöschl, Johannes Quaas, Elena Seran, Bjorn Stevens, Thomas Walati, and Thomas Wagner

thermodynamic forcing (i.e., forcing caused by changes in the temperature and humidity of the boundary layer air) simultaneously, allowing their effects to be distinguished. Changes in the behavior of a group of weather systems in which only one of the quantities varies (a partial derivative of the intensity of the weather system with respect to the desirable quantity) will allow the determination of each effect statistically. Table 1. CHASER science traceability matrix. a

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Xiaoyan Wang, Robert E. Dickinson, Liangyuan Su, Chunlüe Zhou, and Kaicun Wang

relative difference of PM 2.5 concentrations between the air stagnation events and no-stagnation events (relative to the latter) was considered as the effect of air stagnation on PM 2.5 dispersion. Regional air stagnation effects are summarized in Table 1 . The reason for some negative air stagnation effects occurring in summer is discussed in Figs. ES7 and ES8 . Frequency of the air stagnation events. Figure 8 demonstrates the seasonal occurrence of air stagnation events. Europe has the strongest

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Andrew D. Gronewold, Vincent Fortin, Robert Caldwell, and James Noel

’s platforms (and the datasets generated from them) do not typically cross the U.S.–Canadian border because they are constrained by jurisdictional (rather than basin or watershed) boundaries. These inconsistencies can propagate into gaps, discontinuities, and errors in corresponding datasets. Regional precipitation datasets from NOAA, for example, typically originate from radar, satellite, and monitoring station data that are quality controlled within each of NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS) River

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