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W. Paul Miller and Thomas C. Piechota

1. Introduction The upper Colorado River basin (see Fig. 1 ) serves Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico and exists within a supply-driven environment; that is, water resources and supplies are primarily governed by seasonal snowpack and streamflow events. California, Arizona, and Nevada rely on water resources delivered from the lower Colorado River basin within a demand-driven framework. The inflow to the system is nearly constant and governed by water released from the upper Colorado

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Jamie Dyer

convective precipitation ( Boyles et al. 2007 ; Koch and Ray 1997 ). Similar soil contrasts, along with distinct vegetation boundaries, exist within the lower Mississippi River alluvial valley in northwest Mississippi (known locally as the Mississippi Delta), and results from Dyer (2008) indicate that precipitation patterns in and around the Mississippi Delta may be influenced by distinct horizontal boundaries in soil type and/or land cover. In addition, studies have shown that abnormal temperature

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James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, and Witold F. Krajewski

1. Introduction This study centers on analyses of three floods in the Delaware River basin ( Fig. 1 ) that occurred in 2004–06 ( Figs. 2 and 3 ). The three floods represent three major flood agents in the eastern United States ( Miller 1990 ): landfalling tropical cyclones (September 2004; Hurricane Ivan); winter–spring extratropical systems (April 2005); and warm-season convective systems (June 2006). We combine analyses of the 2004–06 flood events with analyses of annual flood peak

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Vicente Barros, Lucas Chamorro, Genaro Coronel, and Julián Baez

1. Introduction The Paraguay River is the most important tributary of the Paraná River and one of the main constituents of La Plata basin, the fifth largest basin in the world. The area of the Paraguay River basin exceeds 1 million km 2 and includes the Pantanal, a huge and flat wetland of 140 000 km 2 ( Fig. 1 ). The Pantanal wetland is a great complex of inundated floodplains. This region, one of the largest wetlands of the world, is widely recognized for its ecological importance and its

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Dinh Thi Lan Anh and Filipe Aires

1. Introduction River discharge (RD) estimation is important for both scientific (e.g., water cycle analysis, land/ocean freshwater exchanges) and operational reasons (e.g., flood risk, water management). Unfortunately, the number of publicly available in situ measurement stations has decreased in recent decades ( Wahl et al. 1995 ), in particular in developing countries. This is a major drawback for hydrology because in addition to being direct, continuous, and potentially very precise

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Robert J. Zamora, Edward P. Clark, Eric Rogers, Michael B. Ek, and Timothy M. Lahmers

1. Introduction This paper presents an extensive look at the 23 July 2008 record flood in the Babocomari River basin located in southeastern Arizona ( Fig. 1 ) from both a meteorological and hydrological perspective. The Babocomari River is a major tributary of the San Pedro River and drains an area of 792 km 2 . The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program ( Ralph et al. 2005 ) instrumented this river basin in May 2008 in collaboration with

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Xiong Zhou, Guohe Huang, Joseph Piwowar, Yurui Fan, Xiuquan Wang, Zoe Li, and Guanhui Cheng

variability of water resources. When linked with RCMs, MHMs can model water resources systems at a fine spatial resolution ( Raje and Krishnan 2012 ). The Athabasca River is the longest undammed river in the Canadian Prairies, and the potential effects of climate change on its hydrological cycles have been implicated for water scarcities, wild fires, flooding, and droughts ( Cheng et al. 2017 ). Further, annual flows of the Athabasca River have been shown to be linked with historic climate conditions

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Ping Lu, James A. Smith, and Ning Lin

; Javier et al. 2010 ; Merz et al. 2008 ). Rainfall structure and evolution can vary substantially from storm to storm, resulting in striking contrasts in the spatial distribution of flood magnitudes over the drainage network. Villarini and Smith (2010) introduced the flood index as the ratio of flood peak discharge at a particular location along a river network to the 10-yr flood discharge at the same location, as a dimensionless representation of flood magnitudes that could be used to examine the

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Ryan J. MacDonald, James M. Byrne, Stefan W. Kienzle, and Robert P. Larson

1. Introduction Mountains play a key role in the global hydrological cycle and are a main source of water for many of the world’s river systems ( Beniston et al. 1997 ). It is expected that climatic change may have a significant impact on mountain snowpack and, subsequently, the snow-derived water supply ( Barnett et al. 2005 ). Water supply on the western prairies of Canada is highly dependent on snowmelt from the east slopes of the Rocky Mountains ( Schindler and Donahue 2006 ). The potential

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Shunjiu Wang, Xinli Zhang, Zhigang Liu, and Deming Wang

, Paoshan et al. (2006) determined rainfall in northern and eastern Taiwan increased on various time scales, but decreased in central and southern Taiwan. Kampata et al. (2008) found there was no evidence of significant trends in the annual rainfall in the headwater of the Zambezi River basin in Zambia by using the cumulative summation and rank-sum tests. Millett et al. (2009) determined that precipitation averaged across the Prairie Pothole Region in North America increased during the past century

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