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Kanako Sato and Toshio Suga

identified from a climatological map based on the Grid Point Value of Monthly Objective Analysis for Argo data (MOAA GPV) dataset ( Hosoda et al. 2008 ) ( Fig. 1 ). This global 1° grid dataset of monthly temperature and salinity distributions has been estimated from available profiles of Argo float, Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TRITON) buoy, and conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) casts, using the two-dimensional optimal interpolation method on pressure levels from the surface to 2000 dbar and on

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Benjamin A. Hodges and David M. Fratantoni

confined to the upper meter ( Price et al. 1986 ; Soloviev and Lukas 1997 ), decaying exponentially with depth ( Halpern and Reed 1976 ). The stabilizing effect of the thermal stratification then inhibits convection and vertical mixing, allowing evaporation to produce a measurable increase in surface salinity ( Soloviev and Lukas 1997 ). The daytime warming and salinification characterizing this low-wind diurnal cycle, as well as the associated enhancement of horizontal thermohaline variability at the

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Leela M. Frankcombe and Henk A. Dijkstra

the models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). This prompts the question as to whether natural variability may be enhancing anthropogenically induced changes and, if so, what mechanisms may be responsible. The study of multidecadal variability in the North Atlantic Ocean also leads to questions about variability in the Arctic. Temperature and salinity anomalies from the North Atlantic may propagate into the Arctic and vice versa, connecting

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Bo Qiu and Shuiming Chen

transitions, the role played by the nonlinear mesoscale eddies in determining the amplitude of the KE jet migration and the strength of the recirculation gyre is yet to be fully quantified ( Berloff et al. 2007 ; Taguchi et al. 2007 ; Pierini et al. 2009 ; Qiu and Chen 2010 ; Nakano and Ishikawa 2010 ). Decadal modulations in the KE’s dynamic state can exert a significant impact on regional water mass formation and transformation processes. Using available hydrographic and profiling float temperature–salinity

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J. F. T. Saur

OCTOBER 1980 J. F. T. S A U R 1669Surface Salinity and Temperature on the San Francisco-Honolulu RouteJune 1966-December 1970 and January 1972-December 1975 J. F. T. SAURScripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093(Manuscript received 4 January 1979, in final form 8 July 1980)ABSTRACT Time-distance distributions of surface

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Rémi Tailleux, Alban Lazar, and C. J. C. Reason

1. Introduction A current central issue in ocean climate theory is to understand the possible links between the variability of temperature and salinity anomalies and that of weather and climate fluctuations on the intraseasonal to decadal time scales. In the current state of our knowledge, salinity anomalies are known to be climatically important on long time scales because they affect the variability of the thermohaline circulation ( Rahmstorf 1995 ; Mikolajewicz and Maier-Reimer 1990 ) as

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C. O. Dufour, J. Le Sommer, T. Penduff, B. Barnier, and M. H. England

strong interest in long-term variability and change in water-mass properties, and therefore it is useful to filter out the variability associated with ACC frontal motion. Sun and Watts (2002a) approached this by projecting the temperature and salinity fields from six repeat hydrographic surveys along the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) SR3 section onto a baroclinic streamfunction coordinate, defined as the dynamic height at 1000 dbar relative to 3000 dbar. The time mean fields obtained

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Yoeri M. Dijkstra and Henk M. Schuttelaars

1. Introduction The salinity structure in estuaries is classically described as well mixed, partially mixed, or salt wedge ( Pritchard 1955 ). These different salinity structures are driven by different dominant balances of physical processes and therefore have different dependencies on estuarine parameters such as depth and river discharge. The basis of our understanding of these dependencies comes from idealized subtidal width-averaged models under constant forcing (steady state). It is well

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Johan Nilsson, David Ferreira, Tapio Schneider, and Robert C. J. Wills

contrast in surface salinity between the Pacific and the Atlantic that prevents deep sinking in the North Pacific ( Weyl 1968 ; Warren 1983 ). In the North Pacific, surface water is fresher and lighter than the deep water, which is close to the mean deep-water salinity of the World Ocean. However, the salinity contrast in itself provides no satisfying process-based explanation, and there are diverging ideas of why this contrast arises. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the asymmetry in

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Igor V. Kamenkovich and E. S. Sarachik

and freshwater fluxes nor the current skill of the numerical modeling of the ocean is sufficient for realistic simulations of the temperature and salinity. The ocean owes its stratification in large part to surface processes. Therefore, realistic simulation of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) is crucial for successful modeling of the ocean state, and a choice of surface boundary conditions is often dictated by the need to keep the values of simulated SST and SSS as

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