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Stephen M. Griffies, Ronald C. Pacanowski, Martin Schmidt, and V. Balaji

consistently and conservatively requires some changes to the baroclinic and tracer equations that are not commonly made. To illustrate this point, consider what conservation means for total salt in a single grid cell in the special case of zero salt fluxes, but generally nonzero fresh water fluxes. With rectangular model cells ( Fig. 1 ), salt is conserved if ∂ t ( h t s ) = 0, (2) where h t is the thickness of a model tracer cell. Salt conservation with a rigid lid, in which ∂ t η = 0, means salinity

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F. J. WALZ

BPBIL, 1908. MONTELY WEAT- REVIEW. 107Year. I Winter wheat. I Clover. I Maize.Planted.................TABLE I.-hfmthly and annual mean lmperaturea a4 four etatima for their longest periods.~Apple treeaBlomned.184-1854 .........Saline, Mich.Detroit, Mich. 1873-1905 ...................Lansing. Mich. 1887-1903 Adrian, Mich. 187&1903 ......... 1847.. ... 1848.. ... lM9 ..... 1850.. ... 1651 ..... lsj2 ..... 1 8 3 .... 1 W ..IAVoum. Harirrlerl. A%,rlW.September 1

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slightly the record flood of 1936 a t Victoria.Water entered the town and spread over wide sections of farm lands. There was also some overflow of the NuecesRiver a t Three Rivers. Tex.. and the San Antonio Rivermon and Saline Rivers; practica r ly no damage occurred ina t Goliad, Tex. The Rio Grande exceeded flood stage by 0.2 foot a t Mercedes, Tex., on the 12th as a result of locally heavyrain, but little or no damage was reported.FLOOD STAGE REPORT FOR OCTOBER 1946[All dabes in October unless

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.____..__Snohomish: Snohomish, Wash _____._.Petit Saline: Boonville; Mo. - __________ Mareau: Jefferson City, Mo ____________ Maruis des Cypes: Omwatomie. Kan.. ..._._.__.____..LaCygne Kans ____..._........._..Osage: Lakeside (Bagnell Dam), Mo-.-Gasconade: Jerome, Mo ________________1 Provisional.2 Continued a t end of month.865138-50---2

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.....____________________ Wiseonsin Rapids, Wis .___.________._.. Portage, Wis .__________ _______________ FlooC stage 22 12 11 ..__._ 12 17 Missouri Basin Solomon: Beloit, Kans.- ___ - ____ __ __._._________. Niles, Kans.. __________ ___ ______.______ Saline: Teseott, Kans ______ _______________ Smoky Hill: Lindsborp, Kans. ______________________ Enterprise, Kans .______________________ Republican: Quide Rock, Nebr .__________._._..__._ Scandla, Kans ____ ___________________. 18 24 25 21 26 10 10 Above flood stages-dates From

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EDWARD A. BEALS

the changes taking place in them; this information could be obtained by the establishment of more first-class met,eorological stations on the islands and coasts of the Pacific; by maintaini cruisers equip ed for meteorological observations, inclu? ing aerologicap observations, at permanent stations or mthin limted areas; and by enlisting every Pacific slip for the purpose of taking observations, including those of the temperature and salinity of the water. Progress along all of these lines has

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P. L MERCANTON

244 MONTHLY WEAwater, attention is directed to the references given in the footnotes which describe an apparatus which will give acontinuous record of seewater salinity from a moving vessel. This instrument in conjunction with an instru- ment to record temperature, which has been constructed, would give the three most important physical variables of sea water, namely, temperature, salinity, and densit .show monthly and early variations of these physicalSuch records taken regularly over the same

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Dr. HANS PETTERSSON

surface tofisheries. The author has compared e above-mentioned hydrographical series with statistics from the local &&erg and found that the chances of catching mackerel at Borno in summer are from four to six times better whenthe bounda surface of 30 per mille salinity is below itathe more consi % erable internal movements are of a gan-ments, t B ey must obviously have a profound influencet!i coincide with ric % catches of herrin during the winteraverage leve Y than in the opposite case

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244 MONTHLY WEAwater, attention is directed to the references given in the footnotes which describe an apparatus which will give acontinuous record of seewater salinity from a moving vessel. This instrument in conjunction with an instru- ment to record temperature, which has been constructed, would give the three most important physical variables of sea water, namely, temperature, salinity, and densit .show monthly and early variations of these physicalSuch records taken regularly over the same

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R. C. MOSSMAN

its basis, the hiown rainfall data for the Indian Ocean and the North Atlantic. These were arranged according to latitude, together with the surface salinity of the ocean. By rearranging the data, the rainfall values were plotted ainst the surface salinity of the ocean. Knowm the s i n i t y of the surface of other oceans, it is reasonab gi e to assume that the relation between salt content and rain- fall hold there also, thus giving a basis for computing the total rainfall for the entire water

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