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Tosiyuki Nakaegawa

-pixel agreement numbers are higher in several specific latitudes where large open waters are located: the Caspian and Aral Seas and the Great Lakes at about 45°N and Lake Victoria and the Amazon and Congo Rivers near the equator. d. Geographical distribution In this subsection, we show the geographical distribution of the per-pixel agreement numbers by focusing on selected areas for each water-related land cover type. 1) Snow and ice As mentioned above, the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are

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Guo-Yue Niu and Zong-Liang Yang

compared to the freshwater inputs to the tropical oceans, where freshwater input is dominated by precipitation. Runoff affects ocean salinity and sea ice conditions ( McDonald et al. 1999 ; Peterson et al. 2002 ). The degree of surface freshening can affect the global thermohaline circulation ( Aagaard and Carmack 1989 ; Broecker 1997 ). A realistic representation of the thermal and hydraulic properties of frozen soil will benefit global and regional climate studies. Land surface models (LSMs) for

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Olga Zolina, Ambroise Dufour, Sergey K. Gulev, and Georgiy Stenchikov

the periods before and after 1994. Air temperatures followed this signal, but with a smaller magnitude. Assuming sea-to-land advection to be controlled by sea–land temperature differences, an increasing SST could potentially result in the intensification of moisture divergence. Figure 12 shows the correlations of the moisture divergence below 850 hPa with the Red Sea SST from the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset, version 1 (HadISST1; Rayner et al. 2003 ). Remarkably, in

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Adam K. Massmann, Justin R. Minder, René D. Garreaud, David E. Kingsmill, Raul A. Valenzuela, Aldo Montecinos, Sara Lynn Fults, and Jefferson R. Snider

efficient precipitation production (small and ) and strong orographic enhancement over narrow mountain ranges are the “seeder–feeder” processes and rapid warm rain autoconversion. The seeder–feeder mechanism induces rapid conversion of cloud water to hydrometeors (small ) and increased hydrometeor size (small ), which allow for orographic enhancement over narrow barriers (e.g., Bergeron 1965 ; Carruthers and Choularton 1983 ). In this process, “seed” precipitation originating as ice aloft sweeps

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Xiaolei Wang, Yi Luo, Lin Sun, Chansheng He, Yiqing Zhang, and Shiyin Liu

1. Introduction The Amu Darya River (ADR) is the largest river in the Aral Sea basin, with a share of mountain discharge greater than 90%. The ADR supplies water to a large population and to the Aral Sea in the downstream region, accounting for two-thirds of total runoff in the Aral Sea basin ( Agal’tseva et al. 2011 ). Water availability in the ADR is of international importance because of water conflicts among countries in this region and the deteriorating Aral Sea environment. Streamflow in

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G. W. K. Moore, Robert D. Field, and Carl S. Benson

trajectory analyses of Helsen et al. (2007) and Sodemann et al. (2008) . ModelE was run at a 4° × 5° horizontal resolution with 20 vertical levels and forced with interannually varying sea surface temperature and sea ice fields from HadISST, version 1.1 ( Rayner et al. 2003 ; Schmidt et al. 2006 ). The initial vapor δ 18 O was interpolated from the ModelE layers above and below the trajectory origin’s initial height. Neither the modeled δ 18 O or underlying prognostic fields are constrained by

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E. Morrow, J. X. Mitrovica, and G. Fotopoulos

subtracted from observed GRACE signals by using a numerical prediction based on the ICE-5G (VM2) ice sheet and Earth viscosity model ( Peltier 2004 ). To determine the anomalous geoid variability, the spherical harmonics (after correction for postglacial rebound) were averaged over all 83 monthly GRACE solutions, and the average was removed from each coefficient set. The anomaly coefficients were then converted into equivalent surface water depth (ESWD) using the Love number methodology described in

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Sebastian H. Mernild, Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Jacob C. Yde, and Gino Casassa

Bolivia (16°S; Soruco et al. 2015 ) have shown that glacier area shrinkage produced a reduction in river runoff. For the Patagonia Ice Fields, the maximum potential contribution to sea level rise is 14.7 ± 2.9 mm sea level equivalent ( Carrivick et al. 2016 ). Recent studies on the Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice Fields have highlighted post–Little Ice Age glacier area shrinkage on the order of 11%–14% for the period ~1870–2011 ( Davies and Glasser 2012 ; Falaschi et al. 2013 ; White and

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

Mediterranean basin. The Alps are responsible for such deflections for the Northern Atlantic systems and the Atlas Mountains for the southern ones. These systems transit over the warm Mediterranean and western Europe, and find favorable conditions for cyclogenesis over the Western Mediterranean ( Buzzi and Tibaldi 1978 ). Also, Mediterranean disturbances frequently develop as a consequence of the interaction of an unusually deep upper-tropospheric trough and cold air with the relative warmth of the sea

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R. David Baker, Barry H. Lynn, Aaron Boone, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Joanne Simpson

–environment interaction, cloud mergers, air–sea interaction, cloud–radiation interaction, and trace gas transport (e.g., Simpson and Tao 1993 ). The model includes solar and infrared radiative transfer processes, a Kessler two-category liquid water scheme, and three-category ice microphysics schemes ( Lin et al. 1983 ; Rutledge and Hobbs 1984 ). The Rutledge–Hobbs microphysics scheme is utilized in this study given the tropical characteristics of the sounding ( Fig. 1 ). GCE is an active participant in the Global

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