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Anandu D. Vernekar

below the seasonal variation of the thermocline. An anomalousvegetation cover over the Sahara Desert is simulated by using appropriate values for surface albedo andwater availability for evaporation. The climatologically observed snow cover over Tibet in the controlexperiment is removed in the anomaly experiment. These changes affect the heat fluxes at the earth'ssurface and hence heating in the atmosphere. The anomalously cold subsurface temperature cools the surface by about -2.4-C. This change

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Claude Frankignoul

-age earth. Science, 191, 1131-1137.Frankignoul, C., and K. Hasselmann, 1977: Stochastic climate models, Part 2. Application to sea-surface temperature anomalies and thermocline variability. Tellus, 29, 289-305.Hasselmann, K., 1976: Stochastic climate models, Part 1. Theory. Tellus, 28, 473-485.Holland, W. R., and L. B. Lin, 1975: On the generation of meso scale eddies and their contribution to the oceanic general circulation. II. A parameter study. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5, 658-669.Jones, R. H

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Chunzai Wang

-locking to the seasonal cycle. During the boreal spring, when the ITCZ is closer to the equator, there is a convergence of mean winds and this mean convergence enhances atmospheric heating due to the moisture convergence feedback. Enhancing atmospheric heating increases the westerly wind anomalies, which, in turn, affect SST anomalies through changing the thermocline and ocean circulation. Therefore, the equatorward movements of the ITCZ during boreal spring creates a positive feedback, that is, a

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R. A. Brown

. Langmuir's measurements indicated a correspondence between the rolls and thermoclines. Suchsecondary circulations offer a possible explanation forthese otherwise difficult to explain phenomena such asthe multiplicity of sharp, persistent thermoclines(Woods, 1968; Langmuir, 1938). The method of obtaining eigenvalue solutions to theOrr-Sommerfeld equation does not facilitate investigating new eigenvalue modes. Each mode requires graphicalinterpolations to establish sufficiently accurate eigenvalues so

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Xiouhua Fu, Bin Wang, Duane E. Waliser, and Li Tao

skill is largely related to the model’s deficiencies in maintaining the large-scale circulations and representing the propagations of the ISO. Apparently, in order to improve the prediction of the ISO in dynamic models, we need to further improve the model representations of the ISO and explore better ways to set up the initial and boundary conditions. On intraseasonal time scale, in addition to the initial conditions ( Krishnamurti et al. 1992 ), boundary conditions (e.g., the intraseasonally

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Nandini Ramesh and Mark A. Cane

phenomena external to the Pacific basin, such as variability in the Atlantic Ocean ( Dong et al. 2006 ; Kang et al. 2014 ) or volcanic aerosols ( Adams et al. 2003 ) are able to induce TPDV as a response. However, multiple studies using varied techniques have demonstrated that the strongest influence on the equatorial thermocline of the Pacific on interdecadal time scales is wind forcing within the tropical belt ( McGregor et al. 2007 ; Karspeck and Cane 2002 ; Emile-Geay and Cane 2009 ), implying

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Richard H. Johnson and Paul E. Ciesielski

Throughflow, and seasonal heat transport in the Indian Ocean ( Webster et al. 1999 ; Lau and Waliser 2005 ; Wang 2005 ; Zhang 2005 ; Waliser 2006 ). Despite considerable attention given to the MJO over the past several decades, deficiencies remain in its basic understanding and prediction. Coupled general circulation models have a difficult time accurately simulating the MJO ( Lin et al. 2006 ; Hung et al. 2013 ) and there is limited skill in prediction models ( Kim et al. 2009 ). Moreover, recent

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George C. Reid and Kenneth S. Gage

observations cover the entire earth. The naturalconclusion is that the bulk of the heat storage takesplace in the tropical oceans, as would be expected.4. Sea surface temperature and the ~rop~ca~ tropo pause Having arrived at a quantitative estimate of theeffect of time-varying insolation on tropical SST's,the final step in the argument is to estimate theinfluence of these SST variations on the atmosphere. The long-established view of the upward branch ofthe tropical Hadley cell circulation as a

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Elmar R. Reiter

VOL. 35, NO. 3 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES MARCH 1978The Interannual Variability of the Ocean-Atmosphere SystemELM3~R R. REITERDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins 80523 (Manuscript received 28 June 1977, in final form 22 November 1977)ABSTRACT Evidence is derived from observational data that the trade wind circulations in both hemispheres over thePacific are related to the sea

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Richard Kleeman and Andrew M. Moore

only existed now for a decade. The first model shown to have this capability was the intermediate model of Zebiak and Cane (1987) . Interestingly, such models (see also Kleeman et al. 1995 ) are still able to out-perform quite sophisticated general circulation models despite having some quite large simplifications in their model physics. Such a situation probably indicates that a relatively simple physical mechanism is responsible for a good deal of ENSO variability (see Kleeman 1993 ). Given

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