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D. P. Billesbach, M. L. Fischer, M. S. Torn, and J. A. Berry

in a small, modified refrigerator and kept at a constant temperature. This system recorded its data on a desktop computer housed in a small, air-conditioned shed and used a version of the same data collection program as was used by the portable system. Raw data from both the permanent and the portable systems were analyzed with our reprocessing program. Because the portable slow-response subsystem was not available for this deployment, we used meteorological data (means of temperature, pressure

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Janek Uin, Allison C. Aiken, Manvendra K. Dubey, Chongai Kuang, Mikhail Pekour, Cynthia Salwen, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Gunnar Senum, Scott Smith, Jian Wang, Thomas B. Watson, and Stephen R. Springston

concentration (also in the original design), hygroscopicity and propensity for cloud formation (also in the original design), aerosol radiative properties (also in the original design), aerosol size distribution, aerosol composition, gaseous precursors and other trace gases, and supporting meteorological state measurements at the point of sampling. Having multiple identically operating units with a broad array of instrumentation and equipped for operation under severe environmental conditions is a

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Jason Allard, Paul C. Vincent, Jeromy R. McElwaney, and Gerrit Hoogenboom

requirements for meteorological observations at the mesoscale increase to meet the needs of users (e.g., mesoscale weather and air quality forecasting, agricultural management practices, and decision-making in sectors such as transportation), data are also required at near–real time for more environmental variables than are collected at COOP stations (e.g., wind speed and direction, soil parameters, and solar radiation) ( National Research Council 1998 , 2009 ). With advancements in relatively inexpensive

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Zhonghai Jin, Thomas P. Charlock, and Ken Rutledge

) is measured using a dual-frequency global positioning system instrument by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) GPS Demonstration network. Standard meterological parameters (wind speed/direction, temperature, pressure, humidity) are measured at several heights above the water level. Ocean surface wave energy spectra are derived from a high-frequency wave height sensor developed by NOAA's National Data Buoy System, which also measures meteorological parameters. In this paper

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Paul A. Hwang, Ronald A. Roy, and Lawrence A. Crum

has three components: radiation, thermalconductivity, and shear viscosity (Devin 1959). Theresonance frequency f~ of a single bubble is inverselyproportional to the bubble size and increases with thesquare root of the ambient pressure. The solution isgiven in Minnaert (1933): fam 2--~a (1)c 1995 American Meteorological Society1288 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY

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Briant L. Davis, L. Ronald Johnson, Bryan J. Johnson, and Robert J. Hammer

chromatography. For many of the observations referenced in Table 1, * Present affiliation: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719. ** Present affiliation: ERT, Inc., Fort Collins, CO 80523. Corresponding author address: Dr. Briant L. Davis, Institute ofAtmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 501 East St. Joseph Street, Rapid City, SD 57701-3995.c 1988 American Meteorological Societyno guarantee could be made that the observed compound was

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Hiroshi Uchida, Takeshi Kawano, Toshiya Nakano, Masahide Wakita, Tatsuya Tanaka, and Sonoka Tanihara

(produced before 2000), and that recent batches in borosilicate-glass bottles might hold the labeled conductivity ratio over longer periods, including transportation. In this study, we expanded the batch-to-batch salinity offset table proposed by Kawano et al. (2006) for recent batches P145–P163 to check the magnitude of the offsets, which is expected to be small for recent batches ( Bacon et al. 2007 ). We evaluated the expanded batch-to-batch correction table by applying it to time series of

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Xichen Li, Jiang Zhu, Yiguo Xiao, and Ruiwen Wang

third step, we validated these augmented subsets by evaluating their capability of reserving the information of the complete datasets with the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) High-Resolution SST/Sea Ice Analysis for GHRSST (FSTIA) SST dataset. The validation method and procedure will be described in section 5 in detail. A proper augmented subset is then finally selected based on their validation results. b. Estimating AEV r of the regular-grid subsets The large

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Xuan-Min Shao, Mark Stanley, Amy Regan, Jeremiah Harlin, Morrie Pongratz, and Michael Stock

VHF DTOA (e.g., Rison et al. 1999 ; Thomas et al. 2004 ) and interferometer ( Rhodes et al. 1994 ; Shao et al. 1995 ; Shao and Krehbiel 1996 ) systems, because of the LF/VLF signals it observes. The VHF systems detect the radiation signals produced by smaller-scale breakdown processes, whereas LASA detects the field changes that are produced by larger-scale current transportation. The source for the latter often cannot be considered as a dimensionless point, and therefore its location

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John R. Christy, Roy W. Spencer, William B. Norris, William D. Braswell, and David E. Parker

these errors in the future ( Free et al. 2002 ; Lanzante et al. 2003 ). More generally, this study emphasizes the need for an observing system that meets the requirements of climate science regarding upper air observations, especially for a vertical resolution that is finer than provided by satellites alone and particularly for altitudes above the troposphere ( NRC 1999 ; 2000a , b ). Acknowledgments Christy and Norris were supported by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DTFH61-99-X-00040

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