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Michael L. Banner, Johannes R. Gemmrich, and David M. Farmer

) , Melville (1996) , and Duncan (2001) provide comprehensive overviews of the importance and scientific status of the major aspects of wave breaking and its importance for upper ocean dynamics and offshore engineering. Recent efforts to provide a more complete understanding of breaking onset have been guided by numerical model studies of nonlinear wave groups (e.g., Dold and Peregrine 1986 ; Tulin and Li 1992 ; Banner and Tian 1998 ; Song and Banner 2002 ; Banner and Song 2002 ; among others

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P. B. Smit and T. T. Janssen

1. Introduction As ocean waves propagate from deep water, onto the continental shelves, and toward coastal areas, their propagation is affected increasingly by interaction with bathymetry and currents, the transition from dominant resonant four-wave interactions to near-resonant three-wave (or triad) interactions and the transformation of organized wave motion into turbulence, heat, and sound in the breaking process close to shore. The ability to model these processes and their effects on wave

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Luc Lenain and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction Over the last several decades, there has been growing recognition from both oceanographic and atmospheric sciences communities that surface waves play a crucial role in the processes by which the ocean and atmosphere interact. Until recently, most of the observational literature on surface waves was driven by studies based on time series of wave measurements at a point (or at a relatively slowly moving mooring) combined with directional information from the dynamics of the

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Sean Haney, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Adrean Webb

instability leads to a forward energy cascade. These submesoscale flows are typically restricted to the mixed layer of the ocean because strong forcing from wind and strain by mesoscale features creates fast flows over short length scales [where Ro ~ O (1)]. Convection and wind also make the near-surface stratification very weak (Ri ≲ 1). Since submesoscale flows occur at the upper boundary layer, they coexist with wind and wave forcing. Despite having a partially geostrophically balanced state, these

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P. B. Smit, T. T. Janssen, and T. H. C. Herbers

-coordinate theory would perform well or better than empirical profiles specifically derived for that purpose. However, the s -coordinate theory presented here is a consistent second-order approximation, and for that reason should be preferred over more empirical methods to estimate the near-surface wave kinematics to that order of approximation. Mean velocities and mass flux Although the material transport due to the presence of ocean waves (or Stokes drift) is still not a fully resolved topic (e

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Peter Sutherland and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction When wind flows over the open sea, it creates surface waves. Energy, momentum, and mass flux between the atmosphere and ocean are all modulated by this wave field ( Melville 1996 ). Although some of the energy and momentum flux input by the wind propagates away as swell, the majority is injected into the water column locally. This results in a turbulent marine boundary layer near the ocean surface, where energy is dissipated by turbulence. This work uses a combination of

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F. M. Monaldo and R. S. Kasevich

2'72 IOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 11Daylight Imagery of Ocean Surface Waves for Wave Spectra - F. M. MONALDOThe Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20810 R. S. KASEVlCHRaytheon Company, Wayland, MA 01778(Manuscript received 8 February 1980, in final form 20 October 1980) ABSTRACT Both surface-reflected daylight and upwclling

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Andrey Pleskachevsky, Mikhail Dobrynin, Alexander V. Babanin, Heinz Günther, and Emil Stanev

not present), and the second series of tests is based on satellite observations in the ocean. Conclusions are summarized and discussed in section 5 . a. Background Numerical simulation of different processes in the ocean, such as transport of different ingredients, chemical and biological exchange, morphodynamics, suspended matter transport, etc., is based on knowledge of wave climate and circulation current dynamics. Developments in recent years allow for application of such modern

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Zhiling Liao, Shaowu Li, Ye Liu, and Qingping Zou

1. Introduction Infragravity (IG) waves are ocean surface waves of low frequencies, typically between 0.004 and 0.04 Hz, that distinct from the wind waves or swells of frequencies between 0.04 and 1 Hz ( Bertin et al. 2018 ). IG wave plays an important role in many coastal processes, such as resonance in harbors ( Miles 1974 ; Bowers 1977 ; Okihiro et al. 1993 ; Maa et al. 2010 ; Thotagamuwage and Pattiaratchi 2014a ; Gao et al. 2019 ; Gao et al. 2020 ), morphological evolution ( Roelvink

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Daniel Bourgault, David C. Janes, and Peter S. Galbraith

Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We thank Kevin Lamb for sharing his code and fruitful discussions as well as James Caveen for code development. Thanks also to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. REFERENCES Bélanger , C. , 2003 : Observation and modelling of a renewal event in the Saguenay Fjord. Ph.D. thesis, Université du Québec à Rimouski, 235 pp . Boegman , L. , G. N. Ivey , and J. Imberger , 2005a : The degeneration of internal waves in lakes with sloping topography

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