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Ian R. Young, Emmanuel Fontaine, Qingxiang Liu, and Alexander V. Babanin

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean is often defined as the region south of 60°S. However, from the point of view of wave climate, this is not a useful definition. Rather, it is more useful to define the Southern Ocean as the region south of the main landmasses of Africa, Australia, and South America and north of the Antarctic ice edge. That is, the region between latitudes of approximately 40° and 60°S. This is an area of ocean of approximately 50 × 10 6 km 2 . As seen in Fig. 11 , the extent

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Michael L. Banner, Johannes R. Gemmrich, and David M. Farmer

) , Melville (1996) , and Duncan (2001) provide comprehensive overviews of the importance and scientific status of the major aspects of wave breaking and its importance for upper ocean dynamics and offshore engineering. Recent efforts to provide a more complete understanding of breaking onset have been guided by numerical model studies of nonlinear wave groups (e.g., Dold and Peregrine 1986 ; Tulin and Li 1992 ; Banner and Tian 1998 ; Song and Banner 2002 ; Banner and Song 2002 ; among others

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Andrey Pleskachevsky, Mikhail Dobrynin, Alexander V. Babanin, Heinz Günther, and Emil Stanev

not present), and the second series of tests is based on satellite observations in the ocean. Conclusions are summarized and discussed in section 5 . a. Background Numerical simulation of different processes in the ocean, such as transport of different ingredients, chemical and biological exchange, morphodynamics, suspended matter transport, etc., is based on knowledge of wave climate and circulation current dynamics. Developments in recent years allow for application of such modern

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Daniel Bourgault, David C. Janes, and Peter S. Galbraith

Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We thank Kevin Lamb for sharing his code and fruitful discussions as well as James Caveen for code development. Thanks also to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. REFERENCES Bélanger , C. , 2003 : Observation and modelling of a renewal event in the Saguenay Fjord. Ph.D. thesis, Université du Québec à Rimouski, 235 pp . Boegman , L. , G. N. Ivey , and J. Imberger , 2005a : The degeneration of internal waves in lakes with sloping topography

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Sean Haney, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Adrean Webb

instability leads to a forward energy cascade. These submesoscale flows are typically restricted to the mixed layer of the ocean because strong forcing from wind and strain by mesoscale features creates fast flows over short length scales [where Ro ~ O (1)]. Convection and wind also make the near-surface stratification very weak (Ri ≲ 1). Since submesoscale flows occur at the upper boundary layer, they coexist with wind and wave forcing. Despite having a partially geostrophically balanced state, these

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Tomomichi Ogata, Motoki Nagura, and Yukio Masumoto

mechanism responsible for generation of the subsurface upward motion in the equatorial IO, particularly focusing on impacts of intraseasonal equatorial waves onto the mean condition. Previous studies indicate various intraseasonal oceanic variability to occur in the equatorial IO with significant amplitude, including ocean responses to atmospheric intraseasonal disturbances such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (e.g., Han et al. 2001 ), meridional current variability associated with the mixed Rossby

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Sophia E. Brumer, Christopher J. Zappa, Ian M. Brooks, Hitoshi Tamura, Scott M. Brown, Byron W. Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, and Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen

1. Introduction Whitecaps are the surface signature of air-entraining breaking waves consisting of subsurface bubble clouds and surface foam patches. They have been studied extensively since the late 1960s because of the role of bubbles in the air–sea exchange of gases, and the production of sea spray aerosols. They form under wind speeds as low as 3 m s −1 ( Hanson and Phillips 1999 ; Monahan and O’Muircheartaigh 1986 ) and have been estimated to cover, on average, 1%–4% of the global oceans

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P. B. Smit, T. T. Janssen, and T. H. C. Herbers

-coordinate theory would perform well or better than empirical profiles specifically derived for that purpose. However, the s -coordinate theory presented here is a consistent second-order approximation, and for that reason should be preferred over more empirical methods to estimate the near-surface wave kinematics to that order of approximation. Mean velocities and mass flux Although the material transport due to the presence of ocean waves (or Stokes drift) is still not a fully resolved topic (e

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F. M. Monaldo and R. S. Kasevich

2'72 IOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 11Daylight Imagery of Ocean Surface Waves for Wave Spectra - F. M. MONALDOThe Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20810 R. S. KASEVlCHRaytheon Company, Wayland, MA 01778(Manuscript received 8 February 1980, in final form 20 October 1980) ABSTRACT Both surface-reflected daylight and upwclling

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Lars Czeschel and Carsten Eden

1. Introduction Breaking of internal waves is a main source of energy for turbulence in the ocean interior. Sources of internal waves include interaction of tidal or balanced flow with bottom topography, loss of balance and wind stress, in particular storms, acting on the surface. Wind stress generated internal waves are often associated with frequencies near the inertial frequency. A prominent mechanism is the so-called “inertial pumping”: temporal fluctuations in the wind stress excite

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