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Michael B. Richman

advantage of weighting the stations or gridpoints equallythereby not biasing the position of synoptic centers.If a research area had a very strong variance ratio,this might prove an advantage. A disadvantage of acorrelation matrix input is that it yields normalizeddeparture fields with isolines being non-dimensional.This is a disadvantage since the comparison of theactual fields to the map types is purely a function ofshape and not intensity. A cross products matrix can als0 be input andwould yield

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J. S. Marshall
and
S. Radhakant

krn Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator (CAPPI) maps would outline these cores. [The technique of these CAPPI maps has been de scribed more recently by Marshall and Ballantyne (1975)]. Good correlation was found in time and azimuth between the recorded sferics and the cores as displayed on the 7 km CAPPI maps, which we shall refer to as "Larsen regions." (Further comparison was 0021-8952/78/02o6-o212505.0o ~) 1978 American Meteorological Societymade on strip charts with azimuth and time as

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William Woodley
and
Alan Herndon

. radar at the location of a gage even if the Z-Rrelation, the map projection, and the raingage locationson the map are perfect. However, the resulting error inestimating point rainfall should not be systematic.5. Results The raingage (G) and radar observations (R~) permitted 50 comparisons, none of which involved seededclouds. These comparisons are tabulated in. Table 1 andsummarized in Table 2. Using the raingage results asthe standard, the mean absolute difference is about 30%while the mean

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Mauro Di Luzio
,
Gregory L. Johnson
,
Christopher Daly
,
Jon K. Eischeid
, and
Jeffrey G. Arnold

map algebra functions for combining the surface interpolation maps (ratios; see procedure 3) and the respective PRISM monthly grids. The map algebra functions combine data on a cell-by-cell basis to derive the final target information grid dataset. In this way, operating on each cell, the target daily precipitation grid was obtained as the result of the following combination: where daily P ( i ) is precipitation grid at day i , daily I r ( i ) is grid of IDW interpolated station ratios [see Eq

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Hirohiko Ishikawa

10 20 30 40 [msq Horizontal windFIG. 4. Comparison of the horizontal wind profileat the crest of the two-dimensional mountain.ordinates. The computational domain was a 4508 kmx 4508 km area in the map coordinates. The horizontalmesh width was 92 km. The vertical depth was 6000 m;zt = 6000 m was assumed. The vertical mesh numberwas 20, and the mesh width varied from 100 m (bpttomlayer) to 500 m (top layer). The input meteorological data were meteorologicalfields

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M. Sofiev
,
E. Genikhovich
,
P. Keronen
, and
T. Vesala

selected points is shown in Table 3 , with an illustration for two of them shown in Fig. 7 . Considering these results, one has to keep in mind several peculiarities of the problem. As pointed out above, the HIRLAM fluxes are averaged between the output times (i.e., these are the 3-h mean values). The SILAM values are based on profiles taken at a specific HIRLAM time step and thus practically “instantaneous.” The comparison domain covers several time regions, therefore at every time the map includes

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Steven T. Fiorino
,
Robb M. Randall
,
Richard J. Bartell
,
Adam D. Downs
,
Peter C. Chu
, and
C. W. Fan

engagements. The anticipated effects on HEL propagation performance are assessed at an operating wavelength of 1.0642 μ m across the world’s oceans and mapped onto a 1° × 1° worldwide grid. The scenario evaluated is near surface and nearly horizontal over a range of 5000 m in which anticipated clear-air maritime aerosols occur. Summer and winter scenarios are considered. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, correlated optical turbulence profiles

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Benoit Parmentier
,
Neeti Neeti
,
Elsa Nickl
, and
Marco Millones

lag cross correlation of MEOT profiles peaks at 6, which suggests a lag of 6 months, similar to the one observed in the map sequences. Comparison of the temporal profiles with teleconnection indices confirms that pair MEOT1–MEOT3 relates the most to the ENSO event ( Table 4 ) as evidenced by correlations with the Niño-3.4 index of 0.82 and 0.73 for MEOT1 and MEOT3, respectively. Results indicate that all other climate indices have correlations that are below the 0.5 threshold ( Table 4 and Fig

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Walter H. Hoecker

30- veering in westerly flow. Boundary-layer trajectory estimates made from geostrophic vectors are easily constructed graphicallyon sea level weather charts, and trajectory forecasts can be made by using National Weather Service foreeast maps distributed by facsimile. L~yer-average wind and adjusted surface wind trajectories are moresuited to post analysis by computer since the data are available on magnetic tapes and the wind vector dataare processed objectively.1. Introduction In

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Leo C. Clarke
and
Robert J. Renard

and B,where the quantity MM~ has a discontinuity withthe algebraic sign of MM~ differing to either side.For the purpose at hand, these unique points, denotingthe maximuln and minimum GG~ points, are set equalto zero in numerical calculations and will be referredto as "zero" MM~ points hereafter. Also note thatthe maximum MM~ corresponds with the zero GG~value. Except for the points A and B, the MM~ reflectsthe magnitude of V~. These relationships give significance to the symbolization MM~ which

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