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Robert C. Bundgaard

with I.At least 63 (75) per cent of the time, term I is 10 (4)times larger than term 11, or more. These statisticswere based upon 236 comparisons of terms I and 11.These comparisons were made from ten consecutive1500 GCT 500-mb maps beginning with 13 February1953. From each map, these comparisons were madefrom a geographical grid of 48 points equally spacedover the United States. In these comparisons, thefields of wind and pressure were analyzed independently; their functions I and I1 in (5) were

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Ernest M. Rampey

. Sea-level weather map; 1830 GCT 25 December 1950.JUNE 1953ERNEST M. RAMPEYFIG. 3. 850-mb chart; 1500 GCT 25 December 1950.culation at sea level, 850 and 700 mb, but not at500 mb. 500 mb.chosen for type I is 700 mb, while that for type I1 isThus, lows which appear on the sea-level map, butwhich are not closed at 850 mb, are not included.5. Type I : Evaluation of temperature advectionSimilarly, lows which are closed at 500 mb and higherhave been excluded from this investigation.As will be shown

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K. Miyakoda
,
L. Umscheid
,
D. H. Lee
,
J. Sirutis
,
R. Lusen
, and
F. Pratte

NMC level. III data werein general available twice a day at 0000 and 1200 GMT,and were used for comparison together with the level IIIdata (map) of ANMRC (Australian Numerical Meteorology Research Centre) in Melbourne.564 JOURNAl. OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VO~.UME339 SEP 197400 GMTSURFACEFro. lc. FIo. 1. Examples of data maps for 00 GMT=t=3 h, 9 September 1'974. (a) 200 mb map includes the data in the layer

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Holbrook Landers

thelines on a transparent overlay, shown in fig. 2, wasplaced on a point where the smoothed value was tobe computed. The line b-d was always oriented northsouth. The smoothed value obtained was equal to(a+l.+c+d+e)/S, and the distance (f) was equal to25 deg lat. A comparison of a smoothed map with anunsmoothed map showed about what would be ex= 1 Xsec-I, 8 X 23 Xsurface of non-divergence might be located from thetwelve cross sections. It resulted that a surface of leastdivergence could be located at

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Wan-cheng Chiu
and
Richard S. Greenfield

change ofabout 0.1C in 12 hr at these latitudes. As may be seen later, thisis smaller than R2At. For the purpose of this study, equation (12)is sufficient.2 74 JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGY VoLixI?: 16FIG. 1. Positions of an air particle and of an isobaric surface at two different times.a finite interval of timei.e., AAt, may be evaluatedfrom data on isobaric maps.In fig. 1, surfaces p(tl) and P(t2) represent thehypothetical positions of an isobaric surface at timestl and t2, respectively. B(x2, y

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H. Riehl
,
T. C. Yeh
, and
N. E. La seur

of the 300-mb surface, 0400 GCT 31 October 1945. Heavy lines same as in fig. 18.from summer to winter, if any, is small, and Aumomentum does not vary with height in the mean. Inindividual cases, it sometimes increases, sometimesdecreases, upward. The intensity of Au-momentumgenerally is about double that of A I er I -momentum,even though Iv( exceeds u near the subtropical ridge.Preliminary comparison between the hemispherictrends and individual maps shows good agreementwith the expected long

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Iordanka N. Panayotova
and
Kyle L. Swanson

and One solution to this system is the classic Eady edge wave solution: where the frequency ω is given by This leaves the total leading order solution: 4. Next-order corrections Substituting Φ 0 from (31) into Eqs. (23) for F 1 and G 1 leads to correspondent equivalent representations: Taking into account the properties of Φ e and after some algebra and numerous applications of the identity we find the solutions for the curl potentials: Here F̃ and G̃ are homogeneous solutions to

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Charles E. Schemm
and
Frank B. Lipps

simplified and can be solved algebraically. A scale analysis of the full transport equations is offered as partialjustification for the present approach in the case of nearly isotropic turbulence. The problem studied is that of a well-mixed layer bounded above by a region of strong stable stratification. The present model gives a significant improvement in the representation of the large-scale variables as compared with the more conventional eddy viscosity approach. In three experiments

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Akira Kasahara

results ofthe geostrophic (G) and nongeostrophic (NG) forecasts of hurricane movement are presented here, notonly to facilitate comparison between the behaviorof the two models but also to investigate the forecasterrors with a view to further improvement of theprediction models.374JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGYVOLUME 16.Let us first consider the sources of forecast errors.In general, errors inherent in the forecast may beclassified into the following three types :1. map analysis errors, especially those due

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Ming Bao
and
John M. Wallace

derived from the five subsets to obtain a single set of clusters. The values of RP are based on spatial correlations between corresponding clusters in the five subsets of the input. As explained in the previous section, each value represents the average of 10 different comparisons. The resulting clusters are shown in Fig. 1 . The first three patterns correspond closely to the regimes G′, A′, and R′ in CW (their Fig. 7). Fig . 1. Composite 500-hPa height anomaly maps of the cluster derived from Ward

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