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Michael E. McIntyre

spontaneously emits inertia–gravity waves having horizontal scales large in comparison with the horizontal scales of the vortical motion. Thus, there was an understandable suspicion, at first, that gravity waves on scales close to the grid scale could, perhaps, be numerical artifacts. However, with the growth of computer power it has become clear from very many subsequent studies that spontaneous imbalance of the kind found in OSD95 is a real fluid-dynamical phenomenon, not a numerical artifact

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Paul D. Williams
Thomas W. N. Haine
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Peter L. Read

remains unclear whether the fuzzy manifold is algebraically or exponentially thin in Rossby number. These two possibilities have potentially very different implications for the fundamental dynamical concepts of balance and potential vorticity inversion. Despite their importance, the above theoretical Rossby number scalings have never been tested experimentally. Laboratory experiments are not subject to the ad hoc approximations of idealized theoretical and numerical analyses, and they therefore

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David A. Schecter

radiation-driven instability. In the context of shallow-water theory, Ford (1994a , b ) verified that IG wave emissions compel cyclone-scale DVRWs in MCs to grow exponentially with time, provided that the Rossby number Ro = Ω/ f exceeds unity. Ford also showed that the growth rate vanishes algebraically as the Froude number, Fr = V / c g , tends to zero; here V is the azimuthal velocity of the vortex and c g is the ambient gravity wave speed. Specifically, the maximum growth rate of a DVRW is

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