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Robert W. Reeves

occurred within a month of the same time of year, because you wouldn't expect that fall maps and midwinter maps would be much alike anyway, and hoping maybe I could find a few cases where the difference between them or some measure (say rms difference) between the two fields was only half of that between two randomly chosen fields. But the best that I found of these few hundred thousand comparisons was one case I think where it was 62%. It didn't seem like a very good analog somehow but it was enough

Full access
David K. Adams
,
Rui M. S. Fernandes
,
Kirk L. Holub
,
Seth I. Gutman
,
Henrique M. J. Barbosa
,
Luiz A. T. Machado
,
Alan J. P. Calheiros
,
Richard A. Bennett
,
E. Robert Kursinski
,
Luiz F. Sapucci
,
Charles DeMets
,
Glayson F. B. Chagas
,
Ave Arellano
,
Naziano Filizola
,
Alciélio A. Amorim Rocha
,
Rosimeire Araújo Silva
,
Lilia M. F. Assunção
,
Glauber G. Cirino
,
Theotonio Pauliquevis
,
Bruno T. T. Portela
,
André Sá
,
Jeanne M. de Sousa
, and
Ludmila M. S. Tanaka

The Amazon Dense GNSS Meteorological Network provides high spatiotemporal resolution, all-weather precipitable water vapor for studying the evolution of continental tropical and sea-breeze convective regimes of Amazonia. The meteorology and climate of the equatorial tropics are dominated by atmospheric convection, which presents a rather challenging range of spatial and temporal scales to capture with present-day observational platforms ( Mapes and Neale 2011 ; Moncrieff et al. 2012 ; Zhang

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C. A. McLinden
,
A. E. Bourassa
,
S. Brohede
,
M. Cooper
,
D. A. Degenstein
,
W. J. F. Evans
,
R. L. Gattinger
,
C. S. Haley
,
E. J. Llewellyn
,
N. D. Lloyd
,
P. Loewen
,
R. V. Martin
,
J. C. McConnell
,
I. C. McDade
,
D. Murtagh
,
L. Rieger
,
C. von Savigny
,
P. E. Sheese
,
C. E. Sioris
,
B. Solheim
, and
K. Strong

. An example of a model–measurement comparison is shown in Fig. SB3 , in which an OSIRIS spectrum is compared with a simulation from the SaskTRAN model ( Bourassa et al. 2007b ). This example illustrates how models also provide useful diagnostic information that aid in the interpretation of the observed spectra. Here the contribution to the total signal from the single-scattered, multiple-scattered, and surface-reflected components are shown. Fig. SB3. Comparison of OSIRIS- and SaskTRAN

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A. J. Illingworth
,
D. Cimini
,
A. Haefele
,
M. Haeffelin
,
M. Hervo
,
S. Kotthaus
,
U. Löhnert
,
P. Martinet
,
I. Mattis
,
E. J. O’Connor
, and
R. Potthast

backscatter profiles from over 265 ALCs in 19 countries are being distributed by EUMETNET E-PROFILE in near–real time to national weather services and can be viewed online (at http://eumetnet.eu/e-profile/ ). These data are homogenized and calibrated using the developments carried out in TOPROF. Figure 1 represents the map of E-PROFILE stations in green and stations that will be integrated before the end of 2018 in blue: ALCs that are present in Europe but not yet integrated into E-PROFILE are in red

Open access
Jennifer A. MacKinnon
,
Zhongxiang Zhao
,
Caitlin B. Whalen
,
Amy F. Waterhouse
,
David S. Trossman
,
Oliver M. Sun
,
Louis C. St. Laurent
,
Harper L. Simmons
,
Kurt Polzin
,
Robert Pinkel
,
Andrew Pickering
,
Nancy J. Norton
,
Jonathan D. Nash
,
Ruth Musgrave
,
Lynne M. Merchant
,
Angelique V. Melet
,
Benjamin Mater
,
Sonya Legg
,
William G. Large
,
Eric Kunze
,
Jody M. Klymak
,
Markus Jochum
,
Steven R. Jayne
,
Robert W. Hallberg
,
Stephen M. Griffies
,
Steve Diggs
,
Gokhan Danabasoglu
,
Eric P. Chassignet
,
Maarten C. Buijsman
,
Frank O. Bryan
,
Bruce P. Briegleb
,
Andrew Barna
,
Brian K. Arbic
,
Joseph K. Ansong
, and
Matthew H. Alford

). Consistent with earlier studies, such as Simmons et al. (2004a) , the conversion map shows that internal tides are generated in areas of rough topography such as the Hawaiian Ridge. The HYCOM–mooring comparison map in Fig. 4c indicates that the HYCOM simulations are able to predict tidal fluxes with some reasonable degree of accuracy. Buijsman et al. (2016) found that about 12% of these low modes reach the continental slopes, compared to 31% found by Waterhouse et al. (2014) . The HYCOM results

Open access
Patrick Broxton
,
Peter A. Troch
,
Mike Schaffner
,
Carl Unkrich
, and
David Goodrich

thunderstorms and tropical storms can also cause floods and flash floods during the summer and fall. The model is currently being used at the National Weather Service Binghamton, New York, Weather Forecast Office in an experimental fashion. Fig. 2. Site map showing the modeled upper Delaware basin watersheds. Shown are the locations of streams and stream gauges, watershed boundaries, delineated hillslopes used for KINEROS, and ~1-km grid boxes on which the snow and subsurface models run. MODEL DESCRIPTION

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Sid-Ahmed Boukabara
,
Vladimir Krasnopolsky
,
Stephen G. Penny
,
Jebb Q. Stewart
,
Amy McGovern
,
David Hall
,
John E. Ten Hoeve
,
Jason Hickey
,
Hung-Lung Allen Huang
,
John K. Williams
,
Kayo Ide
,
Philippe Tissot
,
Sue Ellen Haupt
,
Kenneth S. Casey
,
Nikunj Oza
,
Alan J. Geer
,
Eric S. Maddy
, and
Ross N. Hoffman

sensitivity of the cost function to the network weights or state space variables, respectively. Table 2. Comparison between typical machine learning (e.g., a deep neural network in TensorFlow) and data assimilation, which underpins most global weather forecasting. To highlight the similarities, NN concepts have been written in a linear algebra style close to typical DA notation. Superscript T denotes the transpose operator, bold lowercase letters are vectors and bold uppercase letters are matrices

Open access