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Alicia R. Karspeck
,
Steve Yeager
,
Gokhan Danabasoglu
,
Tim Hoar
,
Nancy Collins
,
Kevin Raeder
,
Jeffrey Anderson
, and
Joseph Tribbia

number of observations taken between 1998 and 2005. Other notable features in the observing network are the deployment of animal-mounted temperature sensors in the eastern midlatitude Pacific in 1998 (and to a lesser degree in 1999) and the GTSPP drifter deployment in the eastern midlatitude Atlantic in 2001. These observational platforms only provide data in the upper 250 m of the water column and in very limited geographic domains. During the 8-yr period from 1998 to 2005, less than 1% of the

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Alexandra Jahn
,
Kara Sterling
,
Marika M. Holland
,
Jennifer E. Kay
,
James A. Maslanik
,
Cecilia M. Bitz
,
David A. Bailey
,
Julienne Stroeve
,
Elizabeth C. Hunke
,
William H. Lipscomb
, and
Daniel A. Pollak

intensification of the hydrological cycle in the Arctic ( Arnell 2005 ), an increase in the liquid FW export from the Arctic Ocean ( Holland et al. 2007 ; Vavrus et al. 2012 ), and summer ice-free conditions either by or before the end of the twenty-first century (e.g., Zhang and Walsh 2006 ; Holland et al. 2006b ). Because of the many potential consequences of the sea ice decline on the environment (e.g., see the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment 2005 ), the survival of animal species in the Arctic (e

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