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Xia Zhang, Shu Fen Sun, and Yongkang Xue

numerical scheme to estimate θ k +1, m +1 i : where ω is a relaxation factor and γ is the unit conversion factor (K) [ C t /( L il ρ i )]. Here T * k +1, m +1 is calculated according to Eq. (5) with the known θ k +1, m +1 l and θ k +1, m +1 i that are used in step 1. This estimation for temperature is based on the fact that soil temperature change is small during a phase change. The variable θ k +1, m +1 i from Eq. (11) avoids numerical oscillations of calculated temperature due

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Yefim L. Kogan, Zena N. Kogan, and David B. Mechem

1. Introduction Marine stratus and stratocumulus clouds play an important role in global water and energy budget by increasing the local planetary albedo by 30%–50% while having relatively little impact on outgoing longwave radiation. These clouds are widespread and at any given time may cover much of the eastern subtropical Pacific and Atlantic, most of the Arctic Sea in summer, and large regions of the middle latitudes. Charlson et al. (1987) estimate that stratus and stratocumulus clouds

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