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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

, Y. , S. Yukimoto , H. Tsujino , H. Ishizaki , and A. Noda , 2006 : Response of North Pacific Ocean circulation in a Kuroshio-resolving ocean model to an Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like change in Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation due to greenhouse-gas forcing. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 84 , 295 – 309 . Schneider , N. , and A. J. Miller , 2001 : Predicting western North Pacific Ocean climate. J. Climate , 14 , 3997 – 4002 . Schneider , N. , and B. D. Cornuelle

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Jeffrey Shaman, R. M. Samelson, and Eric Skyllingstad

scales. Studies include examinations of STMW decadal variability and its relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) ( Talley 1996 ; Joyce et al. 2000 ), the influences of the atmospheric circulation on turbulent heat fluxes at monthly ( Cayan 1992 ) and weekly time scales ( Deser and Timlin 1997 ), and more recent investigation of the effect of synoptic-scale variability on these heat fluxes ( Zolina and Gulev 2003 ). Interannual variations in heat advection by the Gulf Stream, and the large

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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

WBCs and winds comes from an analysis of a 50-yr record of heat content ( Kelly and Dong 2004 ). The dominant mode of variability reveals GS and KE heat content anomalies that are in phase with each other and that lag the Arctic Oscillation by about 1 yr (see Fig. 22 in Kwon et al. 2010 ). The correlation between heat storage rate anomalies and ocean advection ( Fig. 17 ) suggest that a wind-forced spinup of the WBCs is causing heat content changes by advection. However, there are puzzling aspects

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

Surface Interaction and Runoff (MATSIRO; Takata et al. 2003 ) is incorporated in CFES. In OIFES, a sea ice model is coupled with the Ocean model for the Earth Simulator (OFES; Masumoto et al. 2004 ; Sasaki et al. 2008 ), which is based on the Modular Ocean Model version 3 (MOM3; Pacanowski and Griffies 2000 ) developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) with substantial modifications added. The sea ice model is based on a model developed at the International Arctic Research Center

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