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Michele M. Rienecker, Max J. Suarez, Ronald Gelaro, Ricardo Todling, Julio Bacmeister, Emily Liu, Michael G. Bosilovich, Siegfried D. Schubert, Lawrence Takacs, Gi-Kong Kim, Stephen Bloom, Junye Chen, Douglas Collins, Austin Conaty, Arlindo da Silva, Wei Gu, Joanna Joiner, Randal D. Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Andrea Molod, Tommy Owens, Steven Pawson, Philip Pegion, Christopher R. Redder, Rolf Reichle, Franklin R. Robertson, Albert G. Ruddick, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Jack Woollen

(thick curve) and RMS (thin curve) of O-F residuals (hPa, left axis) for surface pressure observations in the (top) Northern and (bottom) Southern Hemispheres. The shaded curves indicate the monthly mean data counts (right axis) for each 6-h assimilation cycle. The mean O-F and O-A statistics for January 2004 radiosonde temperature observations at different pressure levels are shown for the globe and for the Arctic (north of 70°N) in Fig. 11 . The global analysis biases are relatively small (less

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Franklin R. Robertson, Michael G. Bosilovich, Junye Chen, and Timothy L. Miller

Modeling and Assimilation Office, 96 pp. [Available online at http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/research/merra/MERRA_FileSpec_DRAFT_09_02_2008.pdf .] Thompson , D. W. J. , and J. M. Wallace , 1998 : The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 25 , 1297 – 1300 . Thompson , D. W. J. , and J. M. Wallace , 2000 : Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability . J. Climate , 13 , 1000

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David H. Bromwich, Julien P. Nicolas, and Andrew J. Monaghan

in high southern latitudes . Rev. Geophys. , 26 , 149 – 168 . Bromwich , D. H. , and R. L. Fogt , 2004 : Strong trends in the skill of the ERA-40 and NCEP–NCAR reanalyses in the high and middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, 1958–2001 . J. Climate , 17 , 4603 – 4619 . Bromwich , D. H. , and S.-H. Wang , 2008 : A review of the temporal and spatial variability of Arctic and Antarctic atmospheric circulations based upon ERA-40 . Dyn. Atmos. Oceans , 44 , 213 – 243

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