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Masayo Ogi, Bunmei Taguchi, Meiji Honda, David G. Barber, and Søren Rysgaard

). Regarding such atmospheric forcing on different seasons, Ogi and Tachibana (2006) showed that an annual-mean atmospheric pattern defined as the January–December mean Arctic Oscillation (AO) pattern ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 ) is significantly related to both the summer discharge of the Amur River and sea-ice extent in the Okhotsk Sea in the following winter. This study indicated that atmospheric patterns on the annual time scale could influence the season-to-season link of the atmosphere

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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

the Arctic Oscillation, albeit slightly shifted poleward, displacing the eddy-driven jet northward. The wave activity flux may explain the spreading over the Arctic and the United States, but it shows no significant link to western Europe. As there is little change in the SST anomalies in NDJF and no significant SST anomalies are observed in the North Atlantic (not shown), the spreading toward Europe cannot be attributed to downstream or remote changes in SST. Therefore, the anomalous high over

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, Lixin Wu, and Xiuquan Wan

SST anomalies in the North Pacific subarctic frontal zone: Observations and a coupled model simulation. J. Climate, 25, 111–139 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00046.1 . Thompson , D. W. J. , and J. M. Wallace , 1998 : The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 25 , 1297 – 1300 , doi: 10.1029/98GL00950 . Trenberth , K. E. , and J. W. Hurrell , 1994 : Decadal atmosphere–ocean variations in the Pacific . Climate

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Young-Oh Kwon and Terrence M. Joyce

autocorrelation ( Trenberth 1984 ; Bretherton et al. 1999 ). e. Other data and regressions Daily indices for the Pacific–North American (PNA) teleconnection and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) for the corresponding period were downloaded from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center ( http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ ). Note that these daily PNA and AO indices are nearly orthogonal ( r = ~−0.1) but not completely since the definition used by the Climate Prediction Center does not require them to be orthogonal

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Hyodae Seo, Young-Oh Kwon, Terrence M. Joyce, and Caroline C. Ummenhofer

variations in association with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) ( Taylor and Stephens 1998 ; Joyce et al. 2000 ; Frankignoul et al. 2001 ). The GS is displaced northward (southward) when the NAO is in the positive (negative) phase, with the NAO leading the GS shift by 12–18 months ( Frankignoul et al. 2001 ; Sanchez-Franks et al. 2016 ). The lag is explained by the adjustment time scale of the GS position to the NAO-driven wind stress and wind stress curl ( Gangopadhyay et al. 1992 ). However

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) through a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Innovative Area 2205 and through the Arctic Challenge for Sustainability (ArCS) Program and by the Japanese Ministry of Environment through the Environment Research and Technology Department Fund 2-1503. This work was also supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through KAKENHI Grants 15J04846 for JSPS Research Fellows and 16H01844 and by the Japan Science and Technology Agency

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