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Michael Mayer, Steffen Tietsche, Leopold Haimberger, Takamasa Tsubouchi, Johannes Mayer, and Hao Zuo

1. Introduction The Arctic climate system is characterized by net energy loss to space throughout most of the year. Sustained poleward heat transports by atmosphere and ocean are required to balance this radiative imbalance ( Peixoto and Oort 1992 ). In addition, there is a strong seasonality in the Arctic energy budget due to the strong seasonality of insolation, leaving an imprint on energy fluxes and storage. Thorough quantification of the long-term average, mean annual cycle, and trends of

Open access
Norman G. Loeb, Hailan Wang, Fred G. Rose, Seiji Kato, William L. Smith Jr, and Sunny Sun-Mack

regional distribution of reflected flux at the TOA. They also use this approach to diagnose the annual cycle of globally averaged albedo under both clear and all-sky conditions. More recently, Sledd and L’Ecuyer (2019) use the methodology of Donohoe and Battisti (2011) to isolate atmospheric and surface contributions to mean TOA albedo over the Arctic. Here we extend the Stephens et al. (2015) formulation to provide atmosphere-only and surface-only contributions to the variability in TOA and

Open access
Kevin E. Trenberth, Yongxin Zhang, John T. Fasullo, and Lijing Cheng

explore the main drivers of OHC variability, and also compared with the RAPID results. As well as short-term weather-related variations, interannual variations in EEI associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are substantial, and typically are on the order of ±0.5 W m −2 . They are associated with fluctuations in global mean surface temperature (GMST) ( Trenberth et al. 2002 , 2014 ; Mayer et al. 2014 ) as heat is stored in the oceans before being redistributed and some is released back

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

MHTs. In particular, we computed zonal mean global, Indo-Pacific, and Atlantic basin ocean MHTs as 12-month running mean time series and for the mean annual cycle for 2000 to 2016 as a function of latitude for the first time. In Trenberth et al. (2019) zonal mean MHTs were produced for the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans combined, the Indo-Pacific Ocean, and the global oceans. Accordingly, the large heat losses over the Arctic Ocean are replenished by northward ocean heat transports in the Atlantic

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Yun Hang, Alexander V. Matus, and Zhien Wang

effects of different cloud types. Here we find that cloud heating reaches a peak of more than 20 W m −2 over the Southern Hemisphere sea ice at 65°S before decreasing substantially over the interior of the Antarctic ice sheet. Conversely, clouds are found to warm the Arctic in winter by a more uniform 15 W m −2 poleward of 60°N. Globally, stratocumulus and multilayered clouds contribute nearly equally to net CRE at the TOA, each imparting a large net cooling to Earth’s energy budget. This can be

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