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William R. Burrows
and
Curtis J. Mooney

“blizzard alley.” The frequency of blizzard conditions at most other stations north of the treeline is between about 0.5%–1.5% of hourly observations and is even lower in sheltered locations, particularly those in the rugged eastern and northern Arctic terrain. There, blizzard conditions may not occur at an observing site while they are simultaneously occurring in nearby open country. For example Dewar Lakes, located on high open tundra in the middle of Baffin Island, recorded a much higher frequency of

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Åsmund Bakketun
,
Jostein Blyverket
, and
Malte Müller

. Seneviratne , and H. Camargo Jr. , 2012 : Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe . Climate Dyn. , 38 , 349 – 362 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0956-2 . Wrona , E. , T. L. Rowlandson , M. Nambiar , A. A. Berg , A. Colliander , and P. Marsh , 2017 : Validation of the soil moisture active passive (SMAP) satellite soil moisture retrieval in an Arctic tundra environment . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 44 , 4152 – 4158

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Nicole Mölders

Columbia governed the synoptic situation. High pressure over the Arctic Ocean strengthened, while the lows moved southward, reducing the pressure gradient over Alaska. On 6 June, a low over the Gulf of Alaska, and an Aleutian low together with a surface trough over interior Alaska yielded unsettled weather with some showers ( Fig. 2 ). A ridge built up over Alaska in the following days. It started moving into Canada on 7 June, while an Aleutian low increased moisture in southern Alaska. This weakening

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Ross N. Hoffman
and
S. Mark Leidner

Bell 1998 ), and a positive impact on NWP of tropical cyclones (e.g., Isaksen and Stoffelen 2000 ; Leidner et al. 2003 ). QuikSCAT and other scatterometers also provide fractional coverage of sea ice, monitor large icebergs in all weather conditions, map different types of ice and snow, and detect the freeze–thaw line in the tundra ( Gohin et al. 1998 ; Ezraty and Cavanie 1999 ; Remund and Long 1999 ; Long et al. 2001 ; Drinkwater et al. 2001 ). 7. Summary QuikSCAT has provided an extremely

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