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Juerg Schmidli, Gregory S. Poulos, Megan H. Daniels, and Fotini K. Chow

1. Introduction Understanding the winds within a valley and their interactions with the larger-scale forcings is of interest for a number of reasons. For example, the dispersion of pollutants in a valley depends strongly on local valley circulations (e.g., Whiteman 1989 ; Fast et al. 2006 ); nocturnal minimum surface temperatures depend strongly on the near-surface wind speed (e.g., Estournel and Guedalia 1985 ; Steeneveld et al. 2006 ) and hence on the strength of the valley wind; land

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C. David Whiteman, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Gregory S. Poulos

is on the regular evening warmings on the floor and sidewalls of the broad Owens Valley, for which the interactions between shallow drainage flows and ambient flows within the bulk of the valley atmosphere become important. 8. Conclusions The normal late afternoon or early evening temperature declines that occur at sites on the valley floor and sidewalls of California’s Owens Valley are often followed by short-lived evening temperature rises. The normal slow nighttime fall of temperature ensues

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Peter Sheridan and Simon Vosper

than that in the valley (typically because of daytime solar warming within the valley) and, flowing over the Sierra Nevada, induces downslope winds by undercutting the valley atmosphere. Jiang and Doyle (2008) , in a study of diurnal variation of downslope winds in Owens Valley, demonstrated this effect for the case of only moderate mountaintop winds by using observations and high-resolution modeling, terming the flow “in-valley westerly.” Mayr and Armi (2010) show further evidence from T

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Željko Večenaj, Stephan F. J. De Wekker, and Vanda Grubišić

) with thermally driven upvalley and upslope flows ( Fig. 2a ). A transition from a quiescent valley atmosphere to a valley atmosphere affected by mountain-wave activity occurred during midafternoon between 2300 and 0000 UTC ( Fig. 2b ). While southeasterly flow prevailed in the valley center the flow on the western slope became more irregular with downslope winds replacing the upslope winds and colliding with the upvalley flow ( Fig. 2c ). Southeasterly winds up to 15 m s −1 in a layer between 400

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