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Hyodae Seo, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, and Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

shallow cumulus convection scheme ( Park and Bretherton 2009 ) and an updated moist boundary layer scheme by Bretherton and Park (2009) , produces a reasonably realistic intraseasonal lead–lag relationship between SST and convection (not shown). The WRF Model is also run with the Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM; Mlawer and Clough 1997 ) and the Goddard scheme ( Chou and Suarez 1999 ) for longwave and shortwave radiation transfer through the atmosphere. The Noah land surface model is used for

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Adrian J. Matthews, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Karen J. Heywood, Piotr J. Flatau, and Sunke Schmidtko

1. Introduction Ocean–atmosphere interaction is a key process in tropical weather and climate. The moisture flux from the ocean to atmosphere increases approximately exponentially with sea surface temperature (SST) through the Clausius–Clapeyron and bulk flux relationships ( Fairall et al. 1996b ). These processes are core to the evolution of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO; Neelin et al. 1998 ) on interannual time scales. On shorter, intraseasonal time scales, ocean–atmosphere interaction

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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

-scale structure of dynamical variables (temperature, zonal winds, humidity, and vertical motion) derived from the sounding network ( Johnson and Ciesielski 2013 ; Ciesielski et al. 2014 ), the cloud population observed from the ground-based precipitation radars (e.g., Zuluaga and Houze 2013 ; Powell and Houze 2013 ), the air and sea processes regulating the atmosphere–ocean interaction ( Moum et al. 2013 ), and the budget of moist static energy in the northern sounding array ( Sobel et al. 2014 , hereafter

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, Wayne H. Schubert, and James H. Ruppert Jr.

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle is a fundamental mode of the circulation and precipitation variability in the tropics. While its characteristics and governing mechanisms over land and coastal regions have been extensively studied and are well understood, the same cannot be said for over the open ocean, where the paucity of observations has limited our ability to fully describe and understand it. Making creative use of surface observations (e.g., COADS, buoy, and scatterometer winds), several

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