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Edward G. Patton, Peter P. Sullivan, Roger H. Shaw, John J. Finnigan, and Jeffrey C. Weil

/NCEP–Oregon State University–Air Force Research Laboratory–NOAA/Office of Hydrology land surface model (Noah) serves as the primary basis describing the coupling between the atmosphere and the land surface. Noah is designed for weather forecasting focusing on hydrologic coupling in the soil–water–vegetation system ( Chen et al. 1996 ; Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; Ek et al. 2003 ). In its standard form (e.g., Ek et al. 2003 ), Noah’s canopy exchanges heat and moisture as a single “big leaf” and assumes that emitted

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B. N. Gyoswami and J. Shukla

artificially fixed, this oscillation of the Hadley circulation disappears. Thus, this oscillation of theHadley circulation appears as a result of interactions between moist convective and dynamical proce~e~ A wave phenomenon is seen in the lower atmosphere that propagates toward the position of maximumradiative heating. This wave perturbation has a length scale of about 15-20 degrees latitude in the north-southdirection. This phenomenon has large amplitude over land and relatively small amplitude over

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G. Louis Smith and David A. Rutan

uniquely suited for study of the diurnal cycle of OLR. Daily variability of OLR results from interactions of the surface and atmosphere due to temperature, cloud, and humidity variations during the day. These daily variations may be divided into diurnal variations, which repeat periodically, and transient variations due to weather events, which do not repeat on a daily cycle. Accurate knowledge of the diurnal cycle is crucial for several reasons. For sun-synchronous satellites, knowledge of the diurnal

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N. Sato, P.J. Sellers, D.A. Randall, E.K. Schneider, J. Shukla, J.L. Kinter III, Y-T. Hou, and E. Albertazzi

VOL. 46, NO. 18 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 15 SEPTEMBER 1989Effects of Implementing the Simple Biosphere Model in a General Circulation Model N. SATO,* P. J. SELLERS, D. A. RANDALL,** E. K. SCHNEIDER, J. SHUKLA, J. L. mINTER III, Y-T. HOU AND E. ALBERTAZZICenter for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions, Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

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Tianming Li

understand this curious phenomenon leads to new observational and theoretical discoveries. The heart of these discoveries lies in the interactions between the ocean and atmosphere that support a number of modes that are antisymmetric about the equator and can, through various feedback processes, convert a symmetric condition to an asymmetric one. So far, three types of coupled ocean–atmosphere instabilities relevant to the phenomenon under discussion have been proposed. They all involve positive

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Jielun Sun and Jeffrey R. French

that approximately increases with under unstable conditions as well, and temperature variances increase linearly with vertical air temperature differences between z and the surface. Based on the new understanding of turbulent mixing near the land surface, we compare turbulent mixing between over sea and over land in this study ( section 4 ). We first investigate contributions of sea surface waves to air–sea interactions in the MASL ( section 4a ). We then investigate the role of sea surface

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Prashant Goswami and Nandini Harinath

necessary and crucial to simulate the observed variabilities in the Tropics. Thus, our philosophy in this work will be to explore a model with minimal dynamics with emphasis on air–sea interaction and land–ocean distribution. The importance of basin configuration and the presence of land in the dynamics of the coupled ocean–atmosphere system was demonstrated by Anderson and McCreary (1985 , hereafter AM) using a simple coupled model with two ocean basins. The basin geometry was chosen to mimic the

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Guoxing Chen, Wei-Chyung Wang, and Jen-Ping Chen

present study is that we used the measured aerosol size distribution from the 2008 Variability of the American Monsoon Systems Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere–Land Study (VOCALS) field campaign ( Wood et al. 2011 ) as inputs to the WRF Model coupled with a physics-based two-moment cloud microphysical scheme, which responds effectively to the aerosol effects ( Cheng et al. 2007 , 2010 ; Hazra et al. 2013a ). These are described below. a. The southeast Pacific climate system The Andes cordillera in South

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Juerg Schmidli and Richard Rotunno

1. Introduction Diurnal slope and valley winds are an essential component of the fair-weather mountain atmosphere. They strongly influence the weather and climate in mountain valleys and, together with turbulent processes, control the land surface–atmosphere exchanges in mountainous regions. Also, the quantification of the associated fluxes of energy, momentum, moisture, and pollutants is important for many applications such as air-quality studies, numerical weather prediction, and climate

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B. J. H. Van de Wiel, R. J. Ronda, A. F. Moene, H. A. R. De Bruin, and A. A. M. Holtslag

and oscillations in the near-surface wind speed and temperature. At present, it is not clear whether this mechanism generates intermittent turbulence aloft—for example, near the low-level jet ( Vukelic and Cuxart 2000 ; Ha and Mahrt 2001 )—or that it generates intermittent turbulence near the surface via a direct surface–atmosphere interaction ( Revelle 1993 ). In this study we confine ourselves to the direct interaction of the lower stratified atmosphere (first tens of meters) with the surface

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