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Tobias Selz, Lucas Fischer, and George C. Craig

interactions of dynamics and moisture in the atmosphere are not fully understood, the observations of power-law scaling allow for a reality check of NWP models and GCMs concerning water vapor variability ( Kahn et al. 2011 ). While this is not a traditional validation measure, a model’s ability to reproduce the observed scale dependence behavior provides a statistical measure of the accuracy of its moist dynamics and physics ( Skamarock 2004 ). In other words, if a model does not reproduce the real

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Stephan Rasp, Tobias Selz, and George C. Craig

clouds. This could result from differences in the synoptic situation, orography, cloud–cloud interactions, or land surface variations leading to changes in the Bowen ratio, which was found to be important for the shallow cumulus mass flux distribution ( Sakradzija and Hohenegger 2017 ). On the domain scale, regions with different mean cloud sizes are included, potentially increasing the width of cloud mass flux distribution. b. Overall cloud mass flux distribution—The impact of cloud separation Next

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Kirstin Kober and George C. Craig

of moisture and temperature in the atmosphere determines the amount of CAPE and is influenced by several processes, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer. Soil type, land use, orography, and elevation are important because they define properties of the interaction between the land surface and the atmosphere. Several processes contribute to create variability in a convective boundary layer. The heating of surfaces with different heat conduction properties by the sun causes turbulent eddies

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