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Yuntao Wei and Zhaoxia Pu

rainfall initiation was captured using the 6-h SST, thus implying the potential influence of subdaily-scale air–sea interaction. Therefore, a high-frequency ocean–atmosphere coupled model that can well simulate the intraseasonal variability of the oceanic mixed layer temperature over the Sulawesi Sea is needed in future work. Acknowledgments This study is supported by the NOAA Climate Variability and Predictability (CVP) program through Award NA17OAR4310262. The OMI and RMM indexes used in this study

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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

understanding of the interaction among the diurnal cycle, convective activity, and large-scale circulation patterns, such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), is therefore highly desirable. More generally, the diurnal cycle of convection in the tropics still represents a challenge. For example, GCMs tend to predict a peak of convection at midday over land, while observations suggest this happens in the late afternoon (e.g., Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Betts and Jakob 2002 ; Bechtold et al. 2004 ; Dai and

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle is the leading mode of rainfall variability in many regions of the world, particularly in tropical islands and in continental regions adjacent to warm waters ( Dai 2001 ; Ohsawa et al. 2001 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Nesbitt and Zipser 2003 ; Yang and Smith 2006 ; Kikuchi and Wang 2008 ; Johnson 2011 ; Ruppert et al. 2013 ; Chen et al. 2016 ). The Maritime Continent (MC) is exemplary for this, where prominent land–sea breeze

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Fuqing Zhang

rainfall peak over the islands ( Ichikawa and Yasunari 2006 ; Fujita et al. 2011 ; Rauniyar and Walsh 2011 ; Sakaeda et al. 2017 ). With the arrival of the MJO envelope, in contrast, early-morning rainfall over the coastal and offshore regions is enhanced, while the diurnal variation over land is suppressed. A similar projection of diurnal rainfall variation onto the intraseasonal cycle has been documented in coastal South China ( Chen et al. 2019 ). Yet the interaction between the MC and MJO is

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

-scale interactions within the MJO. By permitting the direct representation of cloud formation, the environments within which clouds form can be analyzed according to the governing physics of the atmosphere, rather than via convective parameterizations as is typically the case in global circulation models ( Zhang and Mu 2005 ; Jiang et al. 2015 ; Moncrieff et al. 2012 ). We therefore simulate a boreal summer MJO event propagating over the Maritime Continent using a CRM to investigate whether any relationships

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