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Yijia Hu, Yimin Zhu, Zhong Zhong, and Yao Ha

atmosphere and the effective turbulence mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer. The atmospheric thermal conditions in its boundary layer can represent the thermal conditions of the sea surface. In winter, the Eurasian continent is relatively much colder than the Pacific Ocean. As such, the contrast of the MODYI– correlation coefficients between the Eurasian Continent and western Pacific represents the impact of the land–ocean thermal contrast on the MOD. When the surface temperature difference between

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Paul A. Dirmeyer and Subhadeep Halder

systems that produce accurate global soil moisture analyses for routine use in weather and climate forecasts. This should include higher-resolution land surface analyses that capture heterogeneity on native scales of land–atmosphere interactions, which remain below the resolution of many regional and all global models. The highly coupled and sensitive nature of the responses demonstrated in this experiment further advocate for data assimilation to take place within a coupled land–atmosphere framework

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Constantin Ardilouze, Lauriane Batté, Bertrand Decharme, and Michel Déqué

sensitivity of local land–atmosphere coupling via the soil moisture–boundary layer interaction . J. Hydrometeor. , 12 , 766 – 786 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-10-05014.1 . 10.1175/JHM-D-10-05014.1 Schneider , U. , P. Finger , A. Meyer-Christoffer , E. Rustemeier , M. Ziese , and A. Becker , 2017 : Evaluating the hydrological cycle over land using the newly-corrected precipitation climatology from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) . Atmosphere , 8 , 52 , https

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Xiaoyu Chen and Liguang Wu

the results. One is that the roughness length in our experiments is much smaller than that in the previous land drift experiments. The other is that this component includes the beta drift and the asymmetric flows resulted from the interaction between the TC and environmental flows. Based on our above analysis, we conclude that the different translation speeds in OCN, FLT, and TOP are mainly due to the differences in the environmental steering ( Fig. 3c ). 5. The topographic effect What causes the

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Maziar Bani Shahabadi, Stéphane Bélair, Bernard Bilodeau, Marco L. Carrera, and Louis Garand

Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) scheme since 2001 and is described in detail in Noilhan and Planton (1989) and Bélair et al. (2003a , b) . Recently, a more advanced land surface model, Soil, Vegetation, and Snow (SVS) ( Alavi et al. 2016 ; Husain et al. 2016 ), has been developed to eventually replace ISBA. SVS is the land surface model used in all experiments in this work. SVS is forced with the lowest level (20 m for thermodynamic and 40 m for dynamic variables

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Jonathan L. Case, Sujay V. Kumar, Jayanthi Srikishen, and Gary J. Jedlovec

, soil temperature, and sea surface temperature (SST) are necessary to better simulate the interactions between the surface and atmosphere and, ultimately, to improve predictions of local circulations and summertime pulse-type convection. The impacts of soil moisture heterogeneity and land surface (and ocean) properties on surface fluxes, boundary layer properties, and warm-season quantitative precipitation forecasts continue to be an important topic. On the large scale, Koster et al. (2000) showed

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Erin E. Thomas, Malte Müller, Patrik Bohlinger, Yurii Batrak, and Nicholas Szapiro

mean Arctic sea ice extent by at least 4% per decade ( Cavalieri and Parkinson 2012 ; Meredith et al. 2019 ), thus increasing areas of open ocean. With growing regions of open water in the Arctic, interactions between the atmosphere and ocean surface such as momentum, heat and moisture fluxes, will have increasingly strong influences on the development of high latitude weather patterns ( Ricchi et al. 2016 ). Understanding these coupled interactions will greatly influence our ability to produce

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Nicole P. Kurkowski, David J. Stensrud, and Michael E. Baldwin

1. Introduction Vegetation is one of several parameters that play an important role in land–atmosphere interactions by helping to determine the partitioning of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. Ookouchi et al (1984) show that solenoidal circulations are able to develop between patches of moist and dry soil. Similarly, areas of very dense vegetation next to bare soil surfaces under favorable environmental conditions promote sea-breeze-type circulations ( Segal et al. 1986

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Amit Bhardwaj, Vasubandhu Misra, Ben Kirtman, Tirusew Asefa, Carolina Maran, Kevin Morris, Ed Carter, Christopher Martinez, and Daniel Roberts

coupling in general refers to the interactions between soil moisture and precipitation ( Misra 2020 ). To ascertain this, we compute in Table 2 the seasonality of this land–atmosphere coupling strength using the terrestrial coupling index (TCI) following Dirmeyer (2011) and the atmosphere coupling index (ACI) following Dirmeyer et al. (2014) . They are given by (1) TCI = σ F r ⁡ ( F , L ) , (2) ACI = σ A r ⁡ ( A , F ) , where F refers to latent and sensible heat flux, and L refers to the land

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Mukul Tewari, D. R. Chakraborty, Jose Marengo, Pedro L. Silva Dias, and P. Satyamurty

illustrated here, may only be one of several important factors during intense frosts over southeast Brazil. In this paper, we shall show that an interesting grouping of short and long waves describes the geometry of this downstream amplification in Hovmöller diagrams ( x–t diagrams of the 500-mb geopotential field). Furthermore, we show that these large-amplitude troughs of these freeze events undergo some very interesting scale interactions (kinetic and available potential energy exchanges among waves

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