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Charles D. Koven, William J. Riley, and Alex Stern

soil to thaw on a regular basis (at least every other year). Coupling among environmental conditions, thermal properties, phase change, ground ice, and cryoturbation make the actual temperature dynamics of permafrost soils more complex than can be represented by simple diffusive energy transport. Across the air–soil interface, snow acts to insulate during the winter but not during the summer, leading to thermal rectification and warmer mean soil temperatures than mean air temperatures. Within the

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Pu Shao, Xubin Zeng, Koichi Sakaguchi, Russell K. Monson, and Xiaodong Zeng

carbon emissions are given by Wise et al. (2009) . The analyzed model outputs that we use are from the first realization in the ensemble of simulations with different initial conditions. These outputs and the observational data are regridded to a common resolution (T62 Gaussian grid of 1.9° × 1.9° with fractional land in grid cells considered). Note that because CO 2 concentration is prescribed for the historical and RCP4.5 simulations, the computed net carbon uptake in all simulations did not

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, and Colm Sweeney

freedom, each transect is treated as an independent realization, because the transects cover all seasons of the year with consecutive transects typically separated in time by 2–6 weeks and each transect takes about 2 days to complete. As noted above, the strong westerly winds in the ACC system tend to homogenize the atmospheric p CO 2 in the planetary boundary layer, and so the discrete in situ atmospheric p CO 2 ( Fig. 7i ) is considered representative of atmospheric p CO 2 variations across

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Alan J. Hewitt, Ben B. B. Booth, Chris D. Jones, Eddy S. Robertson, Andy J. Wiltshire, Philip G. Sansom, David B. Stephenson, and Stan Yip

concentrations, and land-use change. The dominant driver of future radiative forcing for each RCP is the CO 2 concentration pathway ( Fig. 1a ) along with the fossil fuel emissions associated with that pathway ( Fig. 1b ) from each IAM that generated the scenario. According to the concentration-driven experiment design in CMIP5 ( Taylor et al. 2012 ), each GCM performs simulations from a preindustrial state (typically representative of 1850) up to 2100, using these CO 2 concentrations as a boundary

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Vivek K. Arora, George J. Boer, Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael Eby, Chris D. Jones, James R. Christian, Gordon Bonan, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, Patricia Cadule, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Keith Lindsay, Jerry F. Tjiputra, and Tongwen Wu

–climate feedback is absent (see section 2d ) and is compared across the nine models in Fig. 9 . The compares relatively well with , for seven of the nine models considered, implying that feedback parameters may be used to quantify the carbon–climate feedback in terms of gain for most models. The does not compare well with for the BCC-CSM1.1 and HadGEM2-ES models, for which the conditions and are not met as well as for other models (see Fig. B1b ). In addition, the HadGEM2-ES model shows the

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