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Dongryeol Ryu, Wade T. Crow, Xiwu Zhan, and Thomas J. Jackson

until it levels off at approximately 0.04 m 3 m −3 . These systematic biases within deeper soil layers are likely the result of nonlinear model physics because, due to the scaling of perturbation noise by layer thickness, very little boundary truncation occurs in lower (and thicker) soil layers. Considering that the basic objective of model perturbation is to explicitly simulate the model prediction error without systematically biasing the model forecasts, the results of this perturbation

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J. M. Schuurmans and M. F. P. Bierkens

100 × 100 m outside the study area, within the model boundaries ( Fig. 1a ). The groundwater model is schematized into seven layers. A flux that is of importance for soil moisture and is influenced by the soil moisture conditions is evapotranspiration. Our model uses Makkink ( Bruin 1987 ; Makkink 1957 ; Winter et al. 1995 ) reference evapotranspiration (ET ref ) as input (spatially uniform). The measured ET ref in this study comes from De Bilt. The potential evapotranspiration (ET pot ) is

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Yongqiang Zhang, Francis H. S. Chiew, Lu Zhang, and Hongxia Li

type 1 dataset, which includes 17 vegetation classes defined according to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The albedo data required to calculate R n in Eq. (1) were obtained from an annual average albedo product at the 5-km resolution for Australia ( Dilley et al. 2000 , 14–24). All the remote sensing and meteorological data were reprojected, clipped to the Murray–Darling basin boundary and resampled to obtain 1-km gridded data for the Murray–Darling basin. The gridded

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Damian J. Barrett and Luigi J. Renzullo

previous state, model parameters, and forcing). We also examine the effect of current and future errors in satellite observations on the resulting analysis error. 2. Observation operators and tangent linear models Two observation operators are developed in this work as well as their respective TLMs. In the context of this paper, H can be written as where the superscripts t and m distinguish the thermal and microwave observation operators, T s is land surface temperature, and T b is

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