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Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Jun Wen

behavior over this high-altitude alpine area ( Ma et al. 2002 , 2008b ; Yang et al. 2003 ; Y08 ; Wang and Ma 2011 ). Even though these studies have resulted in numerous improvements in the parameterization of kB −1 , Chen et al. (2010 , 2011) have recently shown that the current land surface models (LSMs; e.g., Noah LSM) still have difficulties with producing reliable daytime H and T sfc simulations over arid and semiarid regions, such as the Tibetan Plateau. A successful modeling of the

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Haolu Shang, Li Jia, and Massimo Menenti

largest lake in the Yangtze River basin, located between 28.048° and 29.384°N and 115.444° and 117.007°E. There is a clear dry season from October to March, and the flooding season is from April to September. The low residual water-storage capacity of this floodplain was one of the major causes of the extreme flooding over the Yangtze River basin in 1998. Thus, it is chosen as our study area. Fig . 1. The study area of Poyang Lake and its upstream area. Currently, there are two sensors providing dual

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Chiara Corbari and Marco Mancini

1. Introduction Calibration and validation of continuous distributed energy water balance models is a challenging task in hydrology and at the same time a complex issue owing to the difficulties related to the definition of which variables are representative of the single process and how reliable they are ( Beven and Binley 1992 ; Refsgaard 1997 ; Rabuffetti et al. 2008 ; Brath et al. 2004 ). In flood and water balance simulations, the exact representation of the surface boundary conditions

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Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Rolf H. Reichle, and Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

. The latter is given by , which is the variance of a uniform distribution with boundaries ( α max, i , α min, i ); N α is the number of simultaneously calibrated parameters and varies between 2 and 5 (see section 3b ). The parameter penalty can be seen as a regularization term to effectively select one “best” parameter set among the multiple parameter sets that could be consistent with the observations (equifinality); W m = 2, W s = 2, and W α = 3 are weight factors for the different

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Mustafa Gokmen, Zoltan Vekerdy, Maciek W. Lubczynski, Joris Timmermans, Okke Batelaan, and Wouter Verhoef

respect to instantaneous and daily air temperature, the local lapse rates were calculated for the mountainous areas and integrated (based on a DEM) in the interpolation of air temperature data. Finally, the downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation flux ( R swd and R lwd ), boundary layer height, and dewpoint temperature at 2-m height were retrieved from the high-resolution gridded European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) dataset ( http

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