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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

.g., Rutter et al. 1971 ; Valente et al. 1997 ). The purpose of this study is to ascertain the role of E WC to ET for establishing an accurate ET database by examining a possible shortcoming of the current gap-filling method. Our specific objectives are 1) to quantify the durations of wet and dry canopy spells and the operation of the open-path EC system under wet canopy conditions; 2) to characterize the magnitudes and patterns of the directly measured E WC ; 3) to evaluate the various model

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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

. 2010 ) ( Fig. 1 ). Fig . 1. Region of study: relief, areas with natural vegetation cover (for the year 2000; Vreugdenhil et al. 2002 ), watershed boundaries, and country limits (nonnatural areas comprise urban, agriculture, and livestock uses). This and subsequent maps are based on the Mollweide projection. b. Modeling approach MAPSS is an equilibrium biogeography model that simulates the long-term average water balance and potential vegetation, given an average climate, based on water and energy

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

increasingly found that the progress of their understanding was encountering barriers at the boundaries between the disciplines. Further progress would require consideration of the larger system and the interactions between the components that were defined early in the century. Often specific phenomena served as the bridge between disciplines. For example, study of El Niño brought the atmosphere and ocean communities together to an unprecedented degree. A similar convergence has been occurring at the land

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

higher values are correlated to the more scattering convective cells. Due to the presence of ice mostly concentrated into the cloud cores, the borders of precipitating clouds appear somewhat “warmer” and are thus recognized as stratiform rain. Nevertheless, the signal coming from such regions, especially when located within the first atmospheric cold layers, could be equally due to the formation and accretion of snowflakes. Studies are being conducted, and a snowfall detection module is currently

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

( Chen et al. 2008 ), Precipitation Reconstruction over Land (PREC/L; Chen et al. 2002 ), and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP; Xie and Arkin 1997 )—are used to examine the uncertainty in global irrigation water requirements caused by the precipitation data used. All results are based on GPCC precipitation data unless otherwise specified. b. Land cover, soil, LAI, and agricultural data Current land cover, soil texture, and soil and vegetation parameters are taken from the GSWP2 ( Dirmeyer

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

simulations were conducted at monthly time step, which is typical as a current global-scale analysis limited by computational cost and climate data availability. However, uncertainty and potential biases caused by different time steps have not been adequately discussed. Several studies (e.g., Garcia-Quijano and Barros 2005 ) imply that water stresses at subdaily time scales such as midday vapor and soil water depression can reduce plant gas exchange. Because of nonlinearity in the responses of

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