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Xubin Zeng, Zhuo Wang, and Aihui Wang

–169). Finally even over a relatively flat surface with light synoptic winds, there are usually a lot of transient phenomena (e.g., waves, density currents, etc.) that can lead to bursts of heat flux so that the average SH is not zero (e.g., Mahrt 2010 ). A main reason for the above discrepancies is that, when the surface layer is very stable (e.g., for z / L greater than 1–2), the boundary layer depth is too shallow, and the measurement height z is above the surface layer where the similarity theory

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

1. Introduction Quantification of the land surface influence on extremes such as flood and drought is critical for both short-term weather and climate prediction. These dry and wet regimes are modulated by the strength and sensitivity of the land–atmosphere (L–A) coupling and, in particular, how anomalies in soil moisture are translated into and through the planetary boundary layer (PBL), ultimately favoring or suppressing the triggering and support of clouds and precipitation. Improved

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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

1. Introduction Land surface–atmosphere interaction (henceforth, coupling), or degree to which anomalies in the land surface state (i.e., soil wetness, soil texture, surface roughness, temperature, and overlying vegetation composition and structure) can affect (through complex controls on the partitioning of surface turbulent fluxes) the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and, in extreme cases, rainfall generation, is an important—if not the single most fundamental—criterion for evaluating

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Ruth E. Comer and Martin J. Best

response. In the present study, we apply the GLACE method to a recent climate configuration of the atmospheric component of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 3 (HadGEM3-A). Compared to HadAM3, our new model has increased horizontal and vertical resolution and incorporates updated parameterizations of the boundary layer and convection as well as a new dynamical core. We use a land surface configuration that is very similar to that used for HadAM3 in the original GLACE

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

(CAPE), precipitable water, and a lifting mechanism occur in the presence of a sufficiently thick planetary boundary layer (PBL) and relatively small amounts of convective inhibition (CIN; Bluestein 1993 ). Changes in the surface temperature and moisture fields with irrigation have opposing effects on the development of convective precipitation. Additional near-surface moisture from irrigation enhances convection by increasing CAPE, despite lower temperatures with irrigation ( Crook 1996 ; Pielke

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

1. Introduction Irrigation in the Great Plains has rapidly increased since World War II ( McGuire et al. 2003 ), jeopardizing the future viability of the Ogallala Aquifer—a shallow aquifer that stretches from the Texas Panhandle to South Dakota. In some regions, the withdrawal of water has resulted in water table declines exceeding 40 m ( McGuire 2007 ). Currently, irrigation is heavily concentrated within and adjacent to the Ogallala Aquifer as documented by United States Department of

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