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N. V. Zilberman, D. H. Roemmich, S. T. Gille, and J. Gilson

1. Introduction Western boundary currents (WBCs) represent the primary route for the export of tropical water masses from low to midlatitudes, including elements of the shallow meridional overturning circulations ( Talley 2008 ; Huang 2010 ). The strength and variability of WBCs affect air–sea fluxes of heat and moisture and influence storm-track evolution and extreme weather event frequency in WBC regions ( Cai et al. 2012 ). WBCs and recirculation are not well represented in coupled climate

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Heriberto Jesus Vazquez, Jose Gomez-Valdes, Modesto Ortiz, and Juan Adolfo Dworak

1. Introduction The velocity field in eastern boundary currents is regularly inferred from hydrographic and altimetry data (see, e.g., Lynn and Simpson 1987 ; Strub and James 1995 ). However, the velocity field obtained from these tools includes only the geostrophic component. Nevertheless, shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) observations are becoming quite common in these systems (see, e.g., Pierce et al. 2000 ; Gay and Chereskin 2009 ); its associated velocity field

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Wenjing Jia, Dong Wang, Nadia Pinardi, Simona Simoncelli, Andrea Storto, and Simona Masina

1. Introduction Featured by mesoscale activities and strong carbon uptake (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2002 ; Yu and Weller 2007 ), the western boundary current (WBC) region plays a key role in the ocean heat transport and overturning circulation. Being characterized by a frontal structure and by mesoscale and ring dynamics, the WBC and its associated recirculation subregions are challenging in terms of observational and modeling requirements for climatological studies. Even with coordinated in

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Marlos Goes, Gustavo Goni, Shenfu Dong, Timothy Boyer, and Molly Baringer

variability of ocean currents (i.e., boundary currents and surface/subsurface currents) and basinwide integrated heat and volume transports across fixed high-density sections. XBT transect observations also have the advantage of being relatively low cost, with deployments generally coming from commercial vessels. Boundary currents carry a significant part of the transport of mass and heat in the ocean ( Sutton and Allen 1997 ; Visbeck et al. 2003 ; Todd et al. 2019 ) and, therefore, are a key component

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Aidin Jabbari, Leon Boegman, Reza Valipour, Danielle Wain, and Damien Bouffard

. Madsen , 1979 : Combined wave and current interaction with a rough bottom . J. Geophys. Res. , 84 , 1797 – 1808 , https://doi.org/10.1029/JC084iC04p01797 . 10.1029/JC084iC04p01797 Grant , W. D. , and O. S. Madsen , 1986 : The continental-shelf bottom boundary layer . Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. , 18 , 265 – 305 , https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fl.18.010186.001405 . 10.1146/annurev.fl.18.010186.001405 Huntley , D. A. , 1988 : A modified inertial dissipation method for estimating seabed

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Albert J. Williams 3rd, John S. Tochko, Richard L. Koehler, William D. Grant, Thomas F. Gross, and Christopher V. R. Dunn

312 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME4Measurement of Turbulence in the Oceanic Bottom Boundary Layer with an Acoustic Current Meter ArrayALBERT J. WILLIAMS, 3RD, JOHN S. TOCHKO,* RICHARD L. KOEHLER, WILLIAM D. GRANT,** THOMAS F. GROSS~ AND CHRISTOPHER V. R. DUNN~ Department of Ocean Engineering. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543

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Vigan Mensah, Magdalena Andres, Ren-Chieh Lien, Barry Ma, Craig M. Lee, and Sen Jan

1. Introduction The inverted echo sounder (IES) and pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounder (PIES) have been used for nearly three decades for studies of the thermocline depth (e.g., Watts and Rossby 1977 ) and geostrophic currents and transports (e.g., Book et al. 2002 ), and are particularly well suited for studies of western boundary currents. A PIES sits on the seabed and measures the time-varying pressure and the time-varying round-trip time ( τ ) for an acoustic pulse to travel

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L. M. Ivanov, C. A. Collins, and T. M. Margolina

of planets as well as in the atmosphere of the earth, jets were clearly detected because they were intense and had clear signatures in cloud systems. For example, spacecraft observations of Jupiter revealed about 30 quasi-zonal jets at the cloud level ( Williams 1975 ). However, quasi-zonal jets observed in the World Ocean, in contrast to those found in the atmosphere, have low energy as compared to mean currents, Rossby waves (RWs), or mesoscale eddies, that is, they are latent [see Berloff et

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N. Stark, A. E. Hay, R. Cheel, L. Zedel, and D. Barclay

profiler. Proceedings of the IEEE/OES/CMTC Ninth Working Conference on Current Measurement Technology, IEEE, 25 – 29 . Hay, A. E. , Zedel L. , Cheel R. , and Dillon J. , 2012a : Observations of the vertical structure of turbulent oscillatory boundary layer above fixed roughness beds using a prototype wideband coherent Doppler profiler: 1. The oscillatory flow . J. Geophys. Res. , 117, C03005, doi:10.1029/2011JC007113 . Hay, A. E. , Zedel L. , Cheel R. , and Dillon J. , 2012b

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Rigoberto F. Garcia and Christopher S. Meinen

1. Introduction The Florida Current is one of the most studied oceanic flows in the world, with targeted studies as early as the 1880s ( Pillsbury 1891 ) and “routine” study of its transport beginning in the 1950s and continuing through today (e.g., Stommel 1957 ; Richardson and Schmitz 1965 ; Niiler and Richardson 1973 ; Molinari et al. 1985a ; Leaman et al. 1995 ; Baringer and Larsen 2001 ; Rousset and Beal 2011 ). Each study over the years has utilized different instruments and

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