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F. Joseph Turk, Ramon Padullés, Estel Cardellach, Chi O. Ao, Kuo-Nung Wang, David D. Morabito, Manuel de la Torre Juarez, Mayra Oyola, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, and J. David Neelin

vapor (TPW) and precipitation. Process-based diagnostics have been developed such as convective transition statistics, which describe the relation between TPW and precipitation. More recent studies have refined this relationship via relative contributions to conditional instability from different free-tropospheric layers versus the boundary layer, in terms of dynamic entrainment profiles ( Ahmed and Neelin 2018 ; Schiro and Neelin 2019 ; Schiro et al. 2020 ). These diagnostics provide a set of

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Jun Awaka, Minda Le, V. Chandrasekar, Naofumi Yoshida, Tomohiko Higashiuwatoko, Takuji Kubota, and Toshio Iguchi

of the BB (BBwidth) is computed from the upper (BBtop) and lower boundaries (BBbottom) of the BB. The upper and lower boundaries are determined by examination of the reflectivity profile. The BBbottom is determined first and has a similar definition to that of Fabry and Zawadzki (1995) . The BBtop is determined next and has a definition somewhere between that given by Fabry and Zawadzki (1995) and that by Klaassen (1988) . At nadir, BBwidth is computed using where because the range is

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Minda Le, V. Chandrasekar, and Sounak Biswas

. In other words, for stratiform rain: V 3 > C2; convective rain: V 3 < C 1; and transition: C 1 ≤ V 3 ≤ C 2. C 1 is smaller than C 2. “Transition” is neither a stratiform nor a convective rain type. The histogram of V 3 and its cumulative density functions are shown in Fig. 3 . The calculation is based on data from 73 storms with 121 859 vertical profiles in total. The thresholds of C 1 and C 2 used in the current version (version 4) are C 1 = 0.18 and C 2 = 0.20. Further adjustment

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F. Joseph Turk, Z. S. Haddad, and Y. You

derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) observations. TELSEM has been successfully implemented into the current GPROF GPM radiometer algorithm ( Kummerow et al. 2015 ) using a 15-class emissivity index to catalog the surface in the a priori database. This ancillary model and surface class information is attached to all a priori profiles, both precipitating and nonprecipitating. With these ancillary data for the environment and the surface, the current GPROF GPM Bayesian retrieval is

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Yalei You, Christa Peters-Lidard, S. Joseph Munchak, Jackson Tan, Scott Braun, Sarah Ringerud, William Blackwell, John Xun Yang, Eric Nelkin, and Jun Dong

boundaries. Using the steps outlined in section 3 , we compute the morphed NOAA19-MHS by averaging the precipitation rates morphed from AMSR2 and the original NOAA19-MHS precipitation rates, shown in Fig. 3d . We grid the data into 0.1° resolution to compute the motion vector and the comparison has also been done at this resolution. Comparing with the original NOAA19-MHS ( Fig. 3b ), the morphed NOAA19-MHS ( Fig. 3d ) values agree better with GMI ( Fig. 3c ), especially in the area indicated by the

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Eun-Kyoung Seo, Sung-Dae Yang, Mircea Grecu, Geun-Hyeok Ryu, Guosheng Liu, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Yoo-Jeong Noh, Ziad Haddad, and Jinho Shin

-radiation database, we do not expect that the DTH dimension is as important as the GS dimension in the current study. To quantify the variability of precipitation over the oceans east of Asia, a contoured frequency by altitude diagram (CFAD; Yuter and Houze 1995 ) analysis was conducted for the PR radar reflectivity observed in the summer season during five consecutive years. The analysis indicates that, on average, the oceanic region near the Korean Peninsula is characterized by stronger and deeper convective

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Tomoaki Mega and Shoichi Shige

those at lower frequencies. Currently, the land–ocean mask is adaptable to the lowest MWR frequency. For TMI, this is 10 GHz because ocean algorithms use 10-GHz data in the TB–rain-rate conversion. The TMI TB–rain-rate conversion requires 10-GHz channel data, so higher-frequency (i.e., smaller) footprints cannot necessarily be used to execute the RNC. However, an alternative algorithm such as that developed for SSM/I that uses channels down to 19 GHz would be compatible with a higher

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Atsushi Hamada and Yukari N. Takayabu

understanding of such processes by producing measurements from its non-sun-synchronous orbit. Another important purpose of the GPM DPR, in conjunction with the TRMM PR, is to produce three-dimensional distributions of latent heating ( Simpson et al. 1996 ; Takayabu 2002 ; Shige et al. 2004 , 2007 ; Tao et al. 2010 ). Even in the tropics, there is still no unified view with regard to the diabatic heating structure, because of the large discrepancies among current global reanalysis datasets and estimates

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