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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Benjamin C. Trabing and Michael M. Bell

-00804.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00804.1 Browner , S. P. , W. L. Woodley , and C. G. Griffith , 1977 : Diurnal oscillation of the area of cloudiness associated with tropical storms . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 105 , 856 – 864 ,<0856:DOOTAO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1977)105<0856:DOOTAO>2.0.CO;2 Bu , Y. P. , R. G. Fovell , and K. L. Corbosiero , 2014 : Influence of cloud-radiative forcing on tropical cyclone structure . J. Atmos. Sci. , 71 , 1644

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B. Praveen Kumar, Eric D’Asaro, N. Sureshkumar, E. Pattabhi Rama Rao, and M. Ravichandran

dissipation ε despite the large errors in the forcing. In the range of L T / L MO corresponding to our data, ε increases while ε T decreases. This decrease is consistent with that predicted by (9) within the estimated errors (cloud of small dots) as shown by the red line, implying a prediction of (11) ε T = 1.15 B 0 ⁡ ( H L MO ) 1 / 2 for the wind-forced regime. At the smallest values of L T / L MO , for BoB16, the value of ε T is about 0.8, far below the LG89 scaling and clearly in the

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Adam H. Sobel, Janet Sprintall, Eric D. Maloney, Zane K. Martin, Shuguang Wang, Simon P. de Szoeke, Benjamin C. Trabing, and Steven A. Rutledge

coincident with the westerlies during this whole period from 1–3 September, decaying over the next several days by retreating to the west. The visible images show the tops of the convective clouds associated with the low OLR; the impression of plumes trailing westward from the brightest convective cores is broadly consistent with the vertical shear that is apparent at this time upon inspection of Figs. 4 , 5 , and 10 . Fig . 11. (top left) Snapshot of 850-hPa wind (m s −1 ; barbs—half barb is 2.5 m s

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, Emily L. Shroyer, and William D. Smyth

4a (500 × 2-m grid cells horizontally and 500 m deep with 0.2-m resolution near the surface), we force with a constant wind speed of 4 m s −1 , and we apply diurnal heating that has zero net heat input on daily average ( Fig. 8a ). Penetrating solar radiation is treated with a nine-band formulation with a solar-angle dependence described by Gentemann et al. (2009) . Because the grid is two-dimensional ( x – z ), we set Coriolis frequency f to zero rather than let the diurnal jet veer

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

cumulus clouds. Li and Carbone (2012) suggested that this mechanism is likely most effective when the atmosphere is susceptible to weak forcing and no large-scale subsidence in the overlying free troposphere is occurring. At much larger scales, Lindzen and Nigam (1987) used a simple model to recreate many of the climatological features of the Pacific intertropical convergence zone and concluded that the distribution of SST significantly contributed to the magnitude and location of low

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

amplitude and propagation over the MC (e.g., Fig. 4 in Jiang et al. 2015 ). For example, observations show a local minimum in cloud cover over the MC as the MJO propagates eastward (e.g., Knutson and Weickmann 1987 ; Maloney and Hartmann 1998 ; Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Riley et al. 2011 ) indicating a weakening of the MJO over the MC before reintensifying in the western Pacific. This MJO weakening or disruption of its propagation may result from the interaction of convection with high MC topography (e

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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

-scale movement of strong cloud convection and precipitation, which directly alters the surface circulation of the BoB, as studied by Grunseich et al. (2011) using altimeter observations. MJOs force equatorial Kelvin waves that propagate northward along the eastern coastline ( Cheng et al. 2013 ). These Kelvin waves can alter the mixed layer variability and directly change the rate of air–sea heat flux in the BoB ( Oliver and Thompson 2010 ). The relationships between the MJO and surface fluxes over the BoB

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Emily Shroyer, Amit Tandon, Debasis Sengupta, Harindra J. S. Fernando, Andrew J. Lucas, J. Thomas Farrar, Rajib Chattopadhyay, Simon de Szoeke, Maria Flatau, Adam Rydbeck, Hemantha Wijesekera, Michael McPhaden, Hyodae Seo, Aneesh Subramanian, R Venkatesan, Jossia Joseph, S. Ramsundaram, Arnold L. Gordon, Shannon M. Bohman, Jaynise Pérez, Iury T. Simoes-Sousa, Steven R. Jayne, Robert E. Todd, G. S. Bhat, Matthias Lankhorst, Tamara Schlosser, Katherine Adams, S. U. P Jinadasa, Manikandan Mathur, M. Mohapatra, E. Pattabhi Rama Rao, A. K. Sahai, Rashmi Sharma, Craig Lee, Luc Rainville, Deepak Cherian, Kerstin Cullen, Luca R. Centurioni, Verena Hormann, Jennifer MacKinnon, Uwe Send, Arachaporn Anutaliya, Amy Waterhouse, Garrett S. Black, Jeremy A. Dehart, Kaitlyn M. Woods, Edward Creegan, Gad Levy, Lakshmi H. Kantha, and Bulusu Subrahmanyam

with generous showers, and the lisping patter of rain, rings sweet to the ears of men” (translation of Kalidasa’s Ritusamhara from 1792, Pandit 1944 ; Murty 2014 ). At a highly idealized level, the monsoon results from seasonal variation in solar forcing along with the contrasting thermal response of land and ocean. This commonly relied on framework ignores the critical role of moisture (e.g., Chou and Neelin 2003 ) and overlooks the development of monsoons in aquaplanet simulations ( Bordoni

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

, etc.) in the atmosphere, and facilitating model parameterization improvements. Initialized with the reanalysis (observation) data, the synoptic-scale circulation and atmospheric states remain close to the reanalysis (observations) in the first few days of the hindcasts, while the biases in precipitation and clouds are possibly the results of parameterization deficiencies ( Ma et al. 2013 , 2014 , 2015 ; Xie et al. 2012 ) or a strong local interaction between the parameterized physics and

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

km to the right of the track) and BD10 (near the track) employ temperature and salinity initial conditions constructed from the mooring data interpolated in the vertical. Model vertical resolution is 0.25 m, and the time step is 1 h. Surface forcing is based on observed hourly incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, and turbulent fluxes are estimated from hourly moored measurements of air temperature, surface pressure, sea surface temperature, relative humidity, and wind using the COARE 3

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