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P. C. S. Devara, P. E. Raj, K. K. Dani, G. Pandithurai, M. C. R. Kalapureddy, S. M. Sonbawne, Y. J. Rao, and S. K. Saha

forcing influences the aerosol patterns that are formed because of surface-generated aerosols, especially during the early morning transition from a stable to convective boundary layer and the late evening transition from a convective to a stable boundary layer ( Lenshow et al. 1979 ). Lidars play an important role in these studies because of their capability to make very precise continuous measurements of different aerosol and cloud parameters ( McCormick et al. 1993 ). Detailed knowledge of aerosols

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Daniela Nowak, Dominique Ruffieux, Judith L. Agnew, and Laurent Vuilleumier

on the statistics of cloud properties derived from cloud radar and lidar at SIRTA. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 . L11805, doi:10.1029/2005GL025340 . Ramanathan, V. , Cess R. D. , Harrison E. F. , Minnis P. , Barkstrom B. R. , Ahmad E. , and Hartmann D. , 1989 : Cloud radiative forcing and climate: Results from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Science , 243 , 57 – 63 . 10.1126/science.243.4887.57 Richner, H. , 1999 : Grundlagen aerologischer Messungen speziell mittels

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Rod Frehlich, Yannick Meillier, and Michael L. Jensen

; Klipp and Mahrt 2004 ; Baas et al. 2006 ). In addition, the separation of the atmospheric variables into a turbulent component and a mean or slowly variable component can be ill posed, especially for statistics such as variances and fluxes for challenging conditions such as stable boundary layers ( Kaimal and Finnigan 1994 ; Mahrt 1998 ; Vickers and Mahrt 2003 ) and larger-scale forcing such as with a density current and a frontal passage ( Piper and Lundquist 2004 ). The standard analysis

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Danny E. Scipión, Phillip B. Chilson, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Robert D. Palmer

1. Introduction Turbulence in the daytime atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) is primarily forced by heating of the surface, radiational cooling from clouds at the CBL top, or by both mechanisms. The CBL is considered clear when no clouds are present ( Holtslag and Duynkerke 1998 ), as in this study. In this case, the main forcing mechanism in the CBL is heating of the surface. Turbulent convective motions in the CBL transport the heat upward in the form of convective plumes or thermals

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Reginald J. Hill, W. Alan Brewer, and Sara C. Tucker

) – (29) . Recall that the lidar and ship coordinate systems have a positive keelward axis. Locally, the earth-fixed GPS coordinate system is eastward, northward, and upward, in that order. Our figures show the vertical velocity component in the earth-fixed GPS coordinate system such that upward velocity is positive. The NOAA/ESRL mini-MOPA lidar was deployed during the RICO experiment. Figure 3 (upper panel) shows the SNR for a 15-min time segment during RICO. A cloud base is evident from the patch

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Simon P. Alexander and Toshitaka Tsuda

rate and effect of humidity on turbulence echo power revealed by MU-radar–RASS measurements. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. , 63 , 285 – 294 . 10.1016/S1364-6826(00)00130-9 Görsdorf, U. , and Lehmann V. , 2000 : Enhanced accuracy of RASS-measured temperatures due to an improved range correction. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 17 , 406 – 416 . 10.1175/1520-0426(2000)017<0406:EAORMT>2.0.CO;2 Hamilton, K. , 1981 : Latent heat as a possible forcing mechanism for atmospheric tides. Mon. Wea

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V. Bellantone, I. Carofalo, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. Santese, A. M. Tafuro, and A. Turnone

, 670, 870, 940, and 1020 nm, while measurements of sky radiance are made at 440, 670, 870, and 1020 nm. Holben et al. (1998 , 2001 ) give detailed descriptions of the instrument and data acquisition procedures. A flexible inversion algorithm, developed by Dubovik and King (2000) , is used to retrieve columnar aerosol parameters from direct-sun and diffuse-sky radiance measurements. A brief discussion on the accuracy of individual retrievals is reported in Dubovik et al. (2002) . Cloud

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