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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

cumulus clouds. Li and Carbone (2012) suggested that this mechanism is likely most effective when the atmosphere is susceptible to weak forcing and no large-scale subsidence in the overlying free troposphere is occurring. At much larger scales, Lindzen and Nigam (1987) used a simple model to recreate many of the climatological features of the Pacific intertropical convergence zone and concluded that the distribution of SST significantly contributed to the magnitude and location of low

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

amplitude and propagation over the MC (e.g., Fig. 4 in Jiang et al. 2015 ). For example, observations show a local minimum in cloud cover over the MC as the MJO propagates eastward (e.g., Knutson and Weickmann 1987 ; Maloney and Hartmann 1998 ; Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Riley et al. 2011 ) indicating a weakening of the MJO over the MC before reintensifying in the western Pacific. This MJO weakening or disruption of its propagation may result from the interaction of convection with high MC topography (e

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Michael B. Natoli and Eric D. Maloney

source of convective heating for the global atmospheric circulation ( Ramage 1968 ; Yamanaka et al. 2018 ). However, a high-resolution cloud-resolving model is often required to accurately capture the detailed features of the precipitation distribution ( Sato et al. 2009 ; Birch et al. 2015 ), and errors in global climate models in this region cascade into substantial simulation errors from pole to pole ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Inness and Slingo 2006 ). A greater understanding of the diurnal

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