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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Adam H. Sobel, Janet Sprintall, Eric D. Maloney, Zane K. Martin, Shuguang Wang, Simon P. de Szoeke, Benjamin C. Trabing, and Steven A. Rutledge

coincident with the westerlies during this whole period from 1–3 September, decaying over the next several days by retreating to the west. The visible images show the tops of the convective clouds associated with the low OLR; the impression of plumes trailing westward from the brightest convective cores is broadly consistent with the vertical shear that is apparent at this time upon inspection of Figs. 4 , 5 , and 10 . Fig . 11. (top left) Snapshot of 850-hPa wind (m s −1 ; barbs—half barb is 2.5 m s

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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

-scale movement of strong cloud convection and precipitation, which directly alters the surface circulation of the BoB, as studied by Grunseich et al. (2011) using altimeter observations. MJOs force equatorial Kelvin waves that propagate northward along the eastern coastline ( Cheng et al. 2013 ). These Kelvin waves can alter the mixed layer variability and directly change the rate of air–sea heat flux in the BoB ( Oliver and Thompson 2010 ). The relationships between the MJO and surface fluxes over the BoB

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

, etc.) in the atmosphere, and facilitating model parameterization improvements. Initialized with the reanalysis (observation) data, the synoptic-scale circulation and atmospheric states remain close to the reanalysis (observations) in the first few days of the hindcasts, while the biases in precipitation and clouds are possibly the results of parameterization deficiencies ( Ma et al. 2013 , 2014 , 2015 ; Xie et al. 2012 ) or a strong local interaction between the parameterized physics and

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