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Shoshiro Minobe, Masato Miyashita, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

. Pichel , C-Z. Zou , P. Clemente-Colón , and K. S. Friedman , 2004 : A cloud line over the Gulf Stream. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 , L14108 . doi:10.1029/2004GL019892 . Lindzen , R. S. , and S. Nigam , 1987 : On the role of sea surface temperature gradients in forcing low-level winds and convergence in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 2418 – 2436 . Liu , W. T. , and W. Tang , 1996 : Equivalent neutral wind. JPL Publication 96-17, 8 pp . Liu , W. T. , X. Xie , P

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Daisuke Hotta and Hisashi Nakamura

perhaps due to marine stratiform clouds associated with the subtropical anticyclones. As indicated by Miyasaka and Nakamura (2005 , 2010) , radiative cooling due to marine stratus associated with each of the summertime subtropical anticyclones in the two hemispheres can reinforce them by yielding a Rossby wave response. Our experiments seem to suggest that, though weaker than in summer, low-level cloud radiating cooling associated with the subtropical anticyclones can also force the lower

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

. Climate , 17 , 3448 – 3469 . Park , S. , C. Deser , and M. A. Alexander , 2005 : Estimation of the surface heat flux response to sea surface temperature anomalies over the global oceans. J. Climate , 18 , 4582 – 4599 . Park , S. , M. A. Alexander , and C. Deser , 2006 : The impact of cloud radiative feedback, remote ENSO forcing, and entrainment on the persistence of North Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies. J. Climate , 19 , 6243 – 6261 . Peña-Molino , B. , and T

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Mototaka Nakamura and Shozo Yamane

clouds/radiation effects associated with the baiu–mei-yu Asian monsoon. In contrast to the above, January EOF1 ( Figs. 10a,b ) and May EOF1 ( Figs. 10e,f ) cases clearly show forcing of the SSTAs by the accompanying atmospheric anomalies on the large scale in both Mo-1 and Mo0. Overall, however, the composited anomalous SST and F h for Mo0 do not strongly indicate whether the atmosphere is generating the SSTAs or the other way around when details are examined. Also, the corresponding composited

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

of an atmospheric general circulation model to prescribed SST changes: Feedback effects associated with the simulation of cloud optical properties. Climate Dyn. , 5 , 175 – 182 . Lindzen , R. S. , and S. Nigam , 1987 : On the role of sea surface temperature gradients in forcing low-level winds and convergence in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 2418 – 2436 . Minobe , S. , A. Kuwano-Yoshida , N. Komori , S-P. Xie , and R. J. Small , 2008 : Influence of the Gulf

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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

( Fig. 6 ). This may be accompanied by changes in cloud height ( Holt and Raman 1992 ) and formation of secondary circulations ( Wai and Stage 1989 ). The effect of the ocean front on the atmospheric boundary layer can vary by season. For example, instability in wintertime northwesterly winds crossing the KE creates 2-km-high boundary layers over warm meanders and stable conditions over cold water ( Tokinaga et al. 2006 ). In summer, warm advection from the subtropics across the KE can lead to fog

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Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Lisan Yu

1. Introduction There must be a dynamical relationship that links atmospheric storminess and sea surface fronts like the Gulf Stream (GS) and Kuroshio Extension (KE), because there is a geographic relationship in the mean between the pattern of upper-tropospheric clouds and subsurface ocean fronts ( Fig. 1 ). A recent study ( Minobe et al. 2008 ) illustrated parts of the link between the mean Gulf Stream position and the mean atmospheric structure from the boundary layer up into the upper

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Bunmei Taguchi, Hisashi Nakamura, Masami Nonaka, and Shang-Ping Xie

. , 33 , L04703 . doi:10.1029/2005GL025102 . Tokinaga , H. , Y. Tanimoto , S-P. Xie , T. Sampe , H. Tomita , and H. Ichikawa , 2009 : Ocean frontal effects on the vertical development of clouds over the western North Pacific: In situ and satellite observations. J. Climate , 22 , 4241 – 4260 . Tomita , T. , S-P. Xie , and M. Nonaka , 2002 : Estimates of surface and subsurface forcing for decadal sea surface temperature variability in the mid-latitude North Pacific. J

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

, 2006 ). Unlike the situation where SST anomalies are generated in response to basin-scale wind anomalies, the positive correlation is an indication of oceanic thermal forcing on the planetary boundary layer (PBL), especially in regions of strong ocean currents including midlatitude oceanic frontal zones. This is also supported by observed positive correlation between surface heat flux and SST anomalies (i.e., enhanced upward heat flux over positive SST anomalies) in the western North Pacific

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Nicholas A. Bond, Meghan F. Cronin, and Matthew Garvert

each side. We employed a basic set of parameterizations: the Yonsei University (YSU) planetary boundary layer option, the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM; longwave) and Dudhia (shortwave) radiation packages, the Ferrier cloud microphysics scheme, and Kain–Fritsch for subgrid-scale cumulus convection. By way of comparison, except for the cloud microphysics, Davis et al. (2008) used a similar set of parameterizations in their WRF simulations of landfalling hurricanes. The SST distribution used

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