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Robert Conrick and Clifford F. Mass

mean vertical profiles of cloud water, rainwater, and snow mixing ratios averaged by storm sector. Postfrontal sectors generally had profiles with the smallest mixing ratios of all sectors. Considering that warm-sector environments are often associated with strong synoptic forcing and large IVT (e.g., Zhu and Newell 1994 , Zagrodnik et al. 2018 ), it was not unexpected that those environments had the greatest mixing ratios among sectors. Compared to GMI, cloud water profiles during pre- and

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Annareli Morales, Hugh Morrison, and Derek J. Posselt

), cloud water evaporation rate (blue contours = −1 × 10 −3 g kg −1 s −1 , cyan contours = −5 × 10 −4 g kg −1 s −1 ), and freezing level (thick black line). (a) WRA = 0.5, (b) WRA = 2, (c) ECI = 0.3, (d) ECI = 1. This point can be illustrated clearly for moist pseudoadiabatic descent; while the model has diabatic forcing due to mixing and other microphysical processes, moist pseudoadiabatic descent can serve as a useful guide for explaining this behavior. For reversible moist pseudoadiabatic

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

force had an eastward component near the Washington coast ( Fig. 9b ), and the low-level winds were veering ( Fig. 10 ). The melting level was low compared to the region south of 40°N ( Fig. 9a ). At sea level, a weak pressure trough separated a colder air mass to the north, and an elongated band of IVT >400 kg m −1 s −1 stretched for more than 4000 km across the Pacific Ocean ( Fig. 9b ). A long band of clouds ( Fig. 11a ) coincided with the IVT band. Cold air remained north of the Olympic

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Robert A. Houze Jr., and Simone Tanelli

1. Introduction Precipitation over midlatitude West Coastal mountain ranges is usually associated with baroclinic frontal cyclones containing distinct cloud patterns, which are modified during passage over complex terrain ( Nagle and Serebreny 1962 ; Medina et al. 2007 ). Observations from numerous past field programs have characterized the complex ways in which warm processes (condensation/collision–coalescence) and cold processes (riming, accretion, and aggregation) contribute to the

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Robert Conrick, Clifford F. Mass, and Qi Zhong

variability from 2000 to 2300 UTC ( Fig. 8 ): Simulated vertical velocity oscillations exceeded 5 m s −1 within the 0.5–3-km layer, which impacted surface mass-weighted mean drop diameter and mixing ratios of cloud and rainwater. Precipitation in the 444-m domain was modulated by the waves, albeit with a smaller amplitude than observed. Fig . 8. Simulated vertical profiles at Bishop Field for 2000–2300 UTC of (a) cloud water mixing ratio (gray fill; gray dashed contours), rainwater mixing ratio (red

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