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WILLIAM J. DENNEY

.Special credit is due the hurricane reconnaissancemeteorologists of the US. Navy and the U.S. Air Force,whose "detailed eye reports" and "postflight summaries"have been cited extensively.HURRICANE ADELEA disturbance marked by a cloud mass beginning toassume vortex shape was seen on satellite pictures near11"N, 100W, on May 30; this disturbance developed intoan intense tropical storm in less than 24 hr. Ships in thevicinity of the cloud mass reported nearly calm winds onthe 30th. The existence of intense

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John A. Augustine and Kenneth W. Howard

be unnecessary. In 1985, 59 MCCs were identified; this total is approximately 20to 40 more than in any year since 1978, when these annual summaries began. The monthly distribution andseasonal progression of MCCs in 1985 are similar to those of prior years. The enhanced MCC activity in June1985 is associated with a persistent favorable quasi-geostrophic forcing during that period. Significant MCCresearch conducted in 1985 included a prototype large-scale field program (O.-K. PRE-STORM) in May

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Miles B. Lawrence and Joseph M. Pelissier

ending at 0600 GMT 8September and satellite pictures showed the storm'sconvective cloud structure advected away from thelow-level circulation center. The center passed within75 km southeast of Bermuda and maximum sustained winds at Kindley Naval Air Station remainedbelow gale force. In Fig, 10, Floyd is seen near Bermuda. It continued east-northeastward for severaldays, dissipating near the Azores on 12 September.f. Hurricane Floyd, 3-12 Septemberg. Hurricane Gert, 7-15 September Floyd, recognized

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WILLIAM J. DENNEY

the coolair that started south.The area of showers in the satellite pictures taken July 2generated a weak low-pressure center with winds reportedas high as 25 kt the next day. A tropical storm with esti-mated 45-kt winds was seen on ESSA 8 pictures of July 4(fig. 4). Strengthening continued, and Denise was classi-fied as a hurricane early on July 6 after confirmation by aU.S. Air Force reconnaissance of the developing eye at1917 GMT on July 5. Strong wall clouds at the time of theradar fix

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ARNOLD L. SUGG and JOSEPH M. PELISSIER

pictureswere practically void of disturbances or cloud featureswhich are usually antecedent to cyclone development.This unfavorahle pattern for tropical cyclone develop-ment persisted through August. The feature is revealed inthe similarity of the departures from normal charts (700mb.) for July and August. In discussing the circulationfor August, Posey [4] states that the long wave patternchanged very little during the 2 months and that the posi-tive anomaly over the western Atlantic continued in thesame

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Miles B. Lawrence

surface wind of only 46m/s. Earl was also the longest-lasting hurricane, withhurricane-force winds persisting for 7 days. The otherthree hurricanes had sustained winds of 33 m s-~ orhigher for less than 24 h. However, Bonnie and Charleycrossed the United States coast while winds were ofhurricane intensity.2. Individual stormsa. Tropical Storm Andrew, 5-8 June On 5 June, a subtropical depression formed near thenorthern Bahama Islands. Surface wind observationsshowed a cyclonic circulation and upper

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Miles B. Lawrence

. After a pause in development, strengthening resumed on 7 July as the outflow became more symmetrical. Dolores became a hurricane that day and developed a mostly cloud-filled, ragged-appearing eye, analyzed from satellite images to be 10–20 n mi in diameter by the Air Force Global Weather Center. The hurricane attained its peak strength of 80 kt around 0600 UTC on 9 July, shortly after moving near 125°W. The eye then disappeared and the cyclone gradually weakened while becoming sheared from the

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M. B. Lawrence, B. M. Mayfield, L. A. Avila, R. J. Pasch, and E. N. Rappaport

part of the cloud pattern. Finally, at 0000 UTC 31 July, a reconnaissance mission determined the existence of a closed low-level circulation and tropical storm–force wind speeds and Tropical Storm Erin had formed over the southeastern Bahamas. The upper-level low near Florida affected Erin’s movement and development. Associated steering currents accelerated Erin from 2.6 to 7.7 m s −1 and diverted the cyclone around the northeast side of the low. The temporary and fairly subtle change of

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Miles B. Lawrence

resolution).c. Hurricane Clara, 5-I1 September Clara's origin was unusual. The cloud system withinwhich it developed was a convective band containinggale force winds and was associated with the earlystages of Babe. On 4 September, as this system movedover southeast Georgia, a weak mid-troposphericcirculation formed. By 1200 GMT 5 September, thiscirculation was affecting the surface and a depressionbecame located just north of Charleston,. S. C. Charleston reported a west surface wind and a 24 h

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H. C. SUMNER

gradually increasedExtreme wind velocity (fastest mile from -register)again, without any relatively calm period intervening. Others reported a complete calm for periods of as long as1 hour. No stations reported the rapid transition in w-ind conditions which is characteristic of the approachand passage of a hurricane eye. However, a short distance above the surface, there seemed to be little dis-ruption of the hurricane-force winds. Several stations reported very rapidly moving low clouds at the height

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