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Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Gerhard Held, and Ana Maria Gomes

Paulo; the crisscrosses (×) indicate the position of the SBKP METAR site and SBMT upper-air site. A brief analysis of the tornado structure and cloud-base morphology is performed based on selected still images extracted from the videographic documentation; other characteristics of the parent storm are discussed through radar data analysis. In addition, the synoptic-scale conditions that prevailed around the time of the tornadic event are investigated from an ingredients-based perspective ( Doswell

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326 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW Vol. 94, No. 5The experience of several thousand hours of flight asobserver and navigator. of weather reconnaissance air-planm has taught one of us that fronts in the real atmos-phere frequently are at variance with their descriptionand explanation in textbooks. Satellite cloud pictures,if not selected from the larger sample for apparent agree-ment with preconceived models, confirm this experience.Therefore, to disregard the (otherwise physically accept-able) results

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produce the typical open cellularcloud pattern found behind a cold front. Note that thecumuliform clouds in figure 5 appear slightly more devel-oped than those in figure 6. This slight difference in verti-cal development is also apparent in the satellite views(figs. 1 and 4) ; the open cells at 5 appear slightly brighter(fig. 41.11 Thomas J. Eesgan of the Air Force Cambridge Raseareh Laboratories, Bedford,Mass., took all of the photographs from the alrcraft.February 1972 1 Parmenter f 169than those at

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UDC aal.~6.l:aal.~.21~4)((084.1)PICTURE OF THE MONTHOrographic Fibrous Plumes Over New EnglandJOHN H. CONOVER-Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass.ABSTRACT-The enhancement of cirrus cloudiness by oro- Their high emissivity suggests cloud condensation ingraphic effects along the periphery of a large-scale thin liquid form, which quickly freezes to form long icecrystalcirrus cloud system is illustrated. From radiometric meas- plumes. These crystals may have seeded a

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Thomas C. Wann

tropical cyclones in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands, August-October 1972.LEGEND:-xentry into Hawaiian waterS'Captain, U. S. Air Force.MAY 197411L1UK~ 0!' INt. IVIVIN Iii"ylindicated that the clouds to the northwest of Diana werebelow the trade inversion. The tops of the cirrus shieldsfor both storms were determined to be in excess of13 km.Hurricane Celeste continued its westward path,passing very near Johnston Atoll and causing heavy,extensive damage to the facilities. The maximum windswere as

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UDC 551.W7.382.2:~1.6i6.1:651.515.22(084.1)(94)"1972.04.16"PICTURE OF THE MONTHReal Time ESSA 8 APT Tracked Over Australia Receivedat Florida Over 11,000 Miles AwayHENRY W. BRANDLI-Detachment 11. 6th Weather Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.The ESSA 8 Automatic Picture Transmission (APT)subsystem consists of a camera and an FM transmitterdesigned to broadcast television pictures of the cloud coverbelow the satellite during daylight. During the recentApollo 16 lunar mission, ESSA 8 APT

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UDC 551.515.S:551.S7S.1@34.1)(265.2)1`1973.04.04"PICTURE OF THE MONTHFrontal Rope in the North PacificJOHN E. SHAUGHNESSY and THOMAS C. WANN-Weather Support Unit, Headquarters,1st Weather Wing (MAC), Hickam Air Force Base, HawaiiA line of clouds or "frontal rope" is often, but not traversing the central Pacific. Cloud tops along theseinvariably, seen on high-resolution weather satellite data lines, which are believed to be associated with convectivecoincident with the leading edge of cold

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PICTURE OF THE MONTHA Turbulent RegionARTHUR H. SMITH, JR.-EnvironrnentzUS. Air Force, Washington, D.C.I/ TechnicatI Applications Center,Satellite phot,ographs of certain atmospheric conditionscan frequently be used in locating specific regions of highrisk of turbulence occurence (high risk areas).In particular,the cloud patterns associated with polar and subtropicaljet streams, which are known as areas of high turbulenceprobability, are dist'inguishable on satellite photographs.These high risk

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UDC 551.521~2:551.508.21:551.507.982.2:551.578(084.1)PICTURE OF THE MONTHNOAA 2 Scanning Radiometer Visual and InfraredImagery Received Real-Time Over a 50,000-MileTransmission LinkHENRY W. BRANDLI, JOHN W. OLIVER, and RAMON J. ESTU-Detachment 1 I, 6th WeatherWing, Air Weather Service, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.ITOS D (NOAA 2) wns launched on Oct,. 15, 1972. Itssimultaneous scanning radiometer imagery of video andinfrared is a new system designed to transmit imngerybelow the satellite night

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198 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW Vol. 94, No. 3 (Continued from page 140)the cloud and shower belts in both tropical and higherlatitudes. Tn 1958 T suggested that "this relationshipmay provide a basis fur establishing physical homologiesin such diverse phenomena as the middle latitude squalllines and the hurricane spirrtl bsnds . . ." (Carson [I]),and T have subsequently puhlished another paper [21which develops this thesis further and present,s additionalevidence in support t,hereof fronl

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