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Matthieu Plu

modeling. One is the bogus technique ( Heming et al. 1995 ), which consists in forcing the assimilation of pseudo-observations (wind or pressure) into the model initial state. The pseudo-observations are deduced from an idealized cyclone structure observed by satellite imagery. These specific techniques generally improve cyclone forecasts ( Heming 2009 ). Section 2 recalls the general principle of the L82 method and presents the data. Section 3 shows the results for three numerical models. Before

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Fuqing Zhang, Yonghui Weng, Jason A. Sippel, Zhiyong Meng, and Craig H. Bishop

( Houze et al. 2007 ). We thus have very limited skill in predicting tropical cyclone formation, rapid intensification, fluctuation, or decay ( Elsberry et al. 2007 ). High-resolution cloud-resolving mesoscale models, along with better initialization of the initial vortex, may be necessary to faithfully represent the internal dynamics that is crucial for hurricane intensity forecasts ( Houze et al. 2007 ; Chen et al. 2007 ; Davis et al. 2008 ). Despite improvements in using advanced data

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Mark Buehner, P. L. Houtekamer, Cecilien Charette, Herschel L. Mitchell, and Bin He

the EnKF, the tangent linear version of the observation operators is applied to the 4D analysis increment as in 4D-Var. c. Assimilated observations The types of observations assimilated in the 2008 operational 4D-Var system are wind, temperature, and humidity from radiosondes; wind and temperature from aircraft; wind (only over water), temperature, pressure, and humidity from in situ surface observations; winds from profilers over the United States; cloud-tracked winds from

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