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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

-related SST perturbations differ significantly from those associated with El Niño (e.g., Xie 2004 ). As the TIW-related waves meander over the frontal region, the accompanied SST perturbations induce surface wind changes. Over cool oceans like the TIW active regions of the eastern tropical Pacific, the atmospheric wind response is local and shallow, confined to the vicinity of large SST TIW -forcing regions in the horizontal and to the atmospheric PBL in the vertical. Although the precise mechanisms by

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Hamish A. Ramsay, Lance M. Leslie, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

from D3. Similarly, we define a local vertical shear vector using the same pressure levels (850–200 hPa) and center but averaged over a much smaller, 0.4° × 0.4°, domain. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) was parameterized with the Eta Mellor–Yamada 1.5-order local closure scheme ( Janjic 1990 , 1994 ), which includes a prognostic equation for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). Betts–Miller cumulus parameterization ( Betts 1986 ; Betts and Miller 1986 ) was used for D1 and D2 only, while cloud

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