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Claudia Pasquero and Eli Tziperman

nor implementation) to that used for deriving fractional cloud cover from an appropriate PDF in state-of-the-art statistical cloud parameterizations (e.g., Bony and Emanuel 2001 ; Jakob and Miller 2004 ; Randall 1989 ; Tompkins 2002 ). Standard convection schemes mix the water vertically only when the vertical stratification based on the gridcell averages becomes unstable. This is therefore a discontinuous parameterization as a function of the gridcell-averaged temperature and salinity. The

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Serguei Sokolov and Stephen R. Rintoul

1. Introduction For geophysical flows of sufficient spatial scale, the meridional gradient of planetary vorticity (the β effect) provides a restoring force that helps to organize the flow into persistent, narrow zonal jets ( Rhines 1975 ). Well-known examples include the jets on Jupiter and the outer planets and the jet streams in the earth’s atmosphere. Oceanic flows also fall in a parameter range conducive to the formation of zonal jets, although the presence of land boundaries has been

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