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Junaid Amin As-Salek

1. Introduction In earlier studies of storm surges in the Bay of Bengal, the impact on the Meghna estuary and islands was not treated with due importance. Murty et al. (1986) recommended that the bottom topographic details should be incorporated in the storm surge models of the Meghna estuary and stated that, “To represent in detail the real complexities would require very high resolution.” Yamashita (1993) simulated the 1991 cyclone without considering the “Swatch-of-No-Ground (SNG

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Mark A. Donelan, William M. Drennan, and Kristina B. Katsaros

the high likelihood of “interesting” weather. Typical winter conditions consist of alternating cold dry continental and warm humid gulf air masses passing over the region, often with strong frontal zones. The buoy Discus-East, located at the eastern edge of the SWADE zone, was anticipated to be in the Gulf Stream. In fact, during IOP3, the Gulf Stream meandered well landward of its normal path so both Discus- E and -C were in either the Gulf Stream or warm core eddies for much of the time. Periods

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Peili Wu, Keith Haines, and Nadia Pinardi

Mediterranean. Theocharis et al. (1996) have reported that from 1986 to 1995 there was an increase of depth-averaged potential density (Δ σ θ ∼ 0.2) in the Cretan Sea (or the south Aegean Sea) induced by an increase of salinity (Δ S ∼ 0.15 psu) and a considerable decrease of temperature (Δ T ∼ −0.4°C). There have been very cold winters over the Eastern Mediterranean during this period, one example being the 1987 extreme cold surge over the Greek peninsula reported by Lagouvardos et al. (1998

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Gregory Sinnett, Falk Feddersen, Andrew J. Lucas, Geno Pawlak, and Eric Terrill

and larvae transport ( Pineda 1999 ). Bottom-trapped (cold) bores were observed near Huntington Beach in the Southern California Bight in depths between 20 and 8 m, attributed to breaking semidiurnal internal waves ( Nam and Send 2011 ). An onshore propagating nonlinear internal wave train was observed between 30- and 10-m depth in a strongly stratified estuary that disintegrated into irregularly spaced, short-duration, bottom-trapped bores ( Bourgault et al. 2007 ), which generated turbulence as

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Sydney Sroka and Kerry Emanuel

flux. AE1 suggested that large drops, with radii on the order of 500 μ m, are unlikely to remain aloft long enough to contribute substantially to the enthalpy flux. The drop size used as a proxy for all sea spray in this analysis is the 100- μ m drop, which is likely to return to the sea about 3 K colder than the ambient air temperature for typical TC surface conditions. The results showed that the enthalpy flux from sea spray was about 79 W m −2 under moderate wind speeds of U 10 ≈ 20 m s −1

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Russell L. Elsberry and Norman T. Camp

le (C) OWS V . ,,~_l ?I , -1.90 -1.52 -1.14 '-.76 -.38 0 QA(xlO2) LY/SECFIG. 4. As in Fig. 3 except for surface heat flux plus back radiation (Qa).parcels arriving at V may have had a relatively shortoverwater trajectory, the air-sea differences can bequite extreme for outbreaks of cold air behindextratropical cyclones (Manabe, 1958). At OWS P,the long overwater trajectories tend to

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Tamaki Yasuda and Kimio Hanawa

changes a. Heat flux On the interannual timescale, the properties of the NPSTMW vary with the strength of the cold-air surge of the East Asian wintertime monsoon. In earlier studies of NPSTMW variability, it has been shown that there is a large amount of heat released through the surface over the NPSTMW formation area during the wintertime monsoon. The relationship of surface heat flux with the properties of NPSTMW has been discussed (e.g., Suga and Hanawa 1995a ). In this study, we examine the

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Ya Hsueh, G. O. Marmorino, and Linda L. Vansant

withinthe framework of a linearized storm-surge model. The model bathymetry incorporates a realistic shelf,extending from New Orleans to the southern tip of Florida, and a deep ocean region. The boundary conditionat the coast is that there is no normal flow. At the open boundaries, located off the shelf in deep water, theadjusted sea level is fixed at zero. It is found that 1) a coastally trapped response is achieved within one local inertial period following theimposition of the wind; 2) the curved

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Q. Wang, J. A. Kalogiros, S. R. Ramp, J. D. Paduan, G. Buzorius, and H. Jonsson

northerly wind conditions. Easterly offshore flow was observed during the wintertime, bringing the cold air from inland. The cases of westerly wind occur on days with local thermal circulation (sea breeze) when the synoptic scale wind is weak. Table 1. Area-averaged wind speed U and direction (Dir) for each category of near–sea surface atmospheric flow in the measurement region. Since we intend to study the relationship between stress curl and coastal upwelling, the coastal upwelling zone is of

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Jonathan M. Lilly, Peter B. Rhines, Martin Visbeck, Russ Davis, John R. N. Lazier, Friedrich Schott, and David Farmer

1. Introduction The Labrador Sea is the site of some of the deepest convection in the world ocean ( Lazier 1980 ; Clarke and Gascaard 1983 ). A harsh climate persists over the basin during winter, with westerly and northerly winds bringing cold air from Canada and the Arctic ( Fig. 1 ). Air temperatures at nearby Iqaluit (formerly Frobisher Bay, north of Hudson Strait) can average colder than −30°C for a winter month, when northerly and northwesterly winds can average 6 m s −1 . Seaward of the

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