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Xujing Jia Davis, Lewis M. Rothstein, William K. Dewar, and Dimitris Menemenlis

; Qiu et al. 2006 , 2007 ) with emphasis on seasonal time scales, as summarized by Oka (2009) . More recently, Hanawa and Kamada (2001) , Roemmich et al. (2005) , and Qiu and Chen (2006) employed longer data records from the World Ocean Database, XBT surveys, satellite altimeters, and Argo profiling floats to provide the first evidence of interannual and decadal variations in NPSTMW. There have also been several numerical investigations of NPSTMW variability based on general circulation models

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Lu Anne Thompson and Young-Oh Kwon

1. Introduction Observations of a shift in the climate of the North Pacific Ocean around 1976–77 and the link to large-scale patterns in sea surface temperature (SST; Mantua et al. 1997 ) have lead to a search for potential sources of decadal variability in the ocean–atmosphere system in the North Pacific sector. Observations show two modes of variability in SST in the Pacific Ocean ( Deser and Blackmon 1995 ), the first with a large expression in the tropics and a maximum of a different sign

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

summarized in Fig. 1 . In several coupled climate models, ocean–atmosphere interactions in WBCs play a key role in the existence of the extratropical decadal variability ( Pierce et al. 2001 ; Wu and Liu 2005 ; Kwon and Deser 2007 ). These models reproduce many features of the observed decadal variability, including upward surface heat fluxes associated with anomalously warm SSTs in WBCs that heat the overlying atmosphere. The mechanisms diagnosed using coupled climate models depend on the atmospheric

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Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Lisan Yu

particularly identify the dynamical cause. Because the system is coupled, there are processes within the atmosphere and the ocean separately that will force an alignment between the two ( Hoskins and Valdes 1990 , Nakamura et al. 2008 ): storms can produce vorticity fluxes that enhance the midlatitude zonal jet, which can affect the location of the GS and KE, and then further influence the development of the storms. Recently Tanimoto et al. (2003) have examined decadal variability in SST and interannual–decadal

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Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Michael A. Alexander

be rather persistent because of SST anomaly reemergence, sustained forcing from the tropics, and low-frequency changes in oceanic heat advection. The extratropical SST variability is large near the strong SST gradients along the oceanic fronts associated with western boundary currents and their extensions (hereafter WBCs), especially at decadal time scales ( Nakamura et al. 1997 ; Nakamura and Kazmin 2003 ; Kwon et al. 2010a ), when the changes in the oceanic circulation are particularly

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Bunmei Taguchi, Hisashi Nakamura, Masami Nonaka, and Shang-Ping Xie

1. Introduction The Kuroshio and Oyashio Extension (KOE) region is known as one of the major centers of action of decadal-scale variability in the extratropical ocean–atmosphere system over the North Pacific ( Nakamura et al. 1997 ; Nakamura and Kazmin 2003 ; Schneider and Cornuelle 2005 ; Qiu et al. 2007 ; Kwon and Deser 2007 ). In this zonally elongated domain, the pronounced decadal-scale variability in sea surface temperature (SST) is caused largely by oceanic processes, including axial

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Jeffrey Shaman, R. M. Samelson, and Eric Skyllingstad

scales. Studies include examinations of STMW decadal variability and its relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) ( Talley 1996 ; Joyce et al. 2000 ), the influences of the atmospheric circulation on turbulent heat fluxes at monthly ( Cayan 1992 ) and weekly time scales ( Deser and Timlin 1997 ), and more recent investigation of the effect of synoptic-scale variability on these heat fluxes ( Zolina and Gulev 2003 ). Interannual variations in heat advection by the Gulf Stream, and the large

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Jianping Li, Zhiwei Wu, Zhihong Jiang, and Jinhai He

: Monsoon and ENSO: Selectively interactive systems. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 118 , 877 – 926 . Wu , R. , and L. Chen , 1998 : Decadal variation of summer rainfall in the Yangtze-Huaihe River Valley and its relationship to atmospheric circulation anomalies over east Asia and western North Pacific. Adv. Atmos. Sci. , 15 , 510 – 522 . Wu , R. , and B. Wang , 2000 : Interannual variability of summer monsoon onset over the western North Pacific and the underlying processes. J

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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

measure of strength independent of path, and includes the eastward-flowing limbs of both the NRG and SRG. To obtain robust indices, paths and transports from the altimeter were zonally averaged over 52°–72°W for the GS and over 140°–160°E for the KE. These indices exhibit substantial differences between the GS and KE ( Fig. 12 ). In the KE both the path and transport indices ( Figs. 12c,d ) contain large low-frequency (decadal) changes, whereas interannual variability dominates in the GS ( Figs. 12a

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

1. Introduction Impacts of midlatitude air–sea interaction on the climate system and its long-term variability are not fully understood. Some of the numerical experiments (e.g., Latif and Barnett 1994 ) and observational and/or statistical data analysis ( Schneider and Cornuelle 2005 ; Qiu et al. 2007 ) have suggested that midlatitude air–sea interaction can amplify decadal climate variability over the North Pacific. Nevertheless, how significantly the midlatitude ocean can impact the

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