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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

is known that SHF is indispensible in global redistribution of radiation imbalances between incoming and outgoing components ( Kiehl and Trenberth 1997 ; Bala et al. 2008 ; Trenberth et al. 2009 ). The global flux analysis from the Objectively Analyzed Air–Sea Fluxes (OAFlux) project ( Yu et al. 2008 ) suggests that the decadal variability of SHF is distinctly different from that of LHF during the past decades ( Yu and Weller 2007 , 2009 ). As shown in Fig. 1 , the global monthly mean time

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

). Since eddy variability has a wavelength 2 πL d (e.g., Williams et al. 2007 ), correspondingly typical Southern Ocean eddies are between about 60 and 120 km in diameter (e.g., Sprintall 2003 ; Kahru et al. 2007 ). This large difference between atmospheric and oceanic mesoscale variability leads to the question of whether SST variations on the scale of the oceanic Rossby radius can have a substantive impact on basin-averaged air–sea heat fluxes. Alternatively, heat fluxes might instead be

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Xiaolei Niu and Rachel T. Pinker

1. Introduction It has been documented that in recent decades the Arctic has warmed and that northern Alaska is one of the most significantly impacted regions from global warming. The evidence of environmental changes in the Arctic regions with a focus on Alaska has been summarized in Hinzman et al. (2005) . Studies related to surface shortwave radiation (SWR) in the Alaska region can be traced back to 1880s ( Ray 1885 ) and the first comprehensive measurement of SWR started in the early 1960s

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Matthew R. Mazloff

1. Introduction The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the largest system of currents on earth. Driven largely by the westerly winds, the ACC carries and distributes nutrients, salt, and heat throughout the Southern Hemisphere ( Rintoul et al. 2001 ). The winds driving the ACC are highly variable and, in recent decades, have been increasing in strength ( Marshall 2003 ). How the wind drives the ACC is a matter of debate. Theoretical arguments have promoted the ACC transport being governed

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

this reanalysis in the polar regions. A quantitative knowledge of the flow, storage, and conversion of energy within the climate system has evolved with time as a result of contributions made by improvements in the observing system and by numerical atmospheric reanalyses (e.g., Fasullo and Trenberth 2008 ). In polar regions, the energy budget and its variability are frequently used as a diagnostic for understanding rapidly changing conditions including glacial mass balance and perennial sea ice

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Ivana Cerovečki, Lynne D. Talley, and Matthew R. Mazloff

; Gulev et al. 2007 ; M. Bourassa et al. 2011, personal communication). This situation decreases the quality of meteorological state variables estimated by numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and degrades the accuracy of bulk formulas, which are difficult to test and tune in a data-sparse region with such extreme conditions, high spatial variability, and large seasonal cycle. Accurate estimates of ocean surface flux components with high spatial and temporal resolution are necessary not only for

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